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S emb t1-introduction

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S emb t1-introduction

  1. 1. Universidade Técnica de Lisboa - Instituto Superior Técnico Departamento de Engenharia Electrotécnica e de Computadores Área Científica de Computadores Sistemas Embebidos Embedded Systems Rui Manuel Rodrigues Rocha rui.rocha@lx.it.pt RMR©2013 Lisboa, Portugal 2013 MEE Introduction Goals Organization Program Assessment RMR©2013 2 Bibliography
  2. 2. Goals Computers are not primarily used for solving mathematical problems or data processing, but instead are components in complex systems. Terry Winograd in Communication of the ACM, 1979 The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it. Mark Weiser in Scientific American, 1991 To study the architectures, systems and technologies of embedded systems capable of probing the real-world and interacting with it. Improve students’ culture on computer architectures, operating systems and interfacing, with particular emphasis on real-time RMR©2013 systems. 3 Organization L e ctu re s ( Pro f . Ru i Ro cha) S ch e du l e : Tuesday (14:10-15:30); Wednesdays (14:10-15:30) L abs ( Pro f . Carlo s Alme ida & Ru i Ro cha) L ab se ssio ns - 3 ho u rs ( f o r tnightly ) 1 project - each grou p ( 2) w ill tackle a different problem P ar t 1 - h andl ing t he hardware w/ bas ic s oftw ar e P ar t 2 - u sing a RTOS Support by e - m ail: ru i.rocha@lx .it .pt O f f ice : TBA on the cou rse w ebsite RMR©2013 4 I n f o r m a t i o n s ( w e b)
  3. 3. Programme Basics of Embedded Computing Introduction FreeRTOS Embedded & Real-time Systems characterization Task management Fallacies and Pitfalls, Challenges Interrupts and Device Handlers Examples of primitives CPUs Typical CPUs ISA architectures System’s Architecture Memory, Bus, I/O Development Platforms & tools Multiprogramming and OS Operating Systems: structure, main functions, ... Scheduling Synchronization and IPC 5 Use cases examples Real-time issues scheduling, priority inversion Design methodologies Abstraction levels, specs, design approaches, integration Examples Multitasking RMR©2013 Synch. & IPC Mechanisms, typical primitives, examples Networked embedded systems Comm. in Embedded Systems Ethernet, CAN, Zigbee Main issues: networking, power management, ... Main protocols: data-link, timesynch, ... Lectures and assignments schedule See https://fenix.ist.utl.pt/disciplinas/semb/ 2012-2013/1-semestre RMR©2013 6
  4. 4. Assessment Final Exam (minimum grade 8,5) 1st Period - Jan, 11 2014 2nd Period - Feb, 1 2014 Lab (minimum grade 9,5) Project delivery Part I - Nov, 8 2013; Part II - Dec, 20 2013 Oral assessment - Jan, 3 & 4 2014 Final Grade NF = 0,5*EF + 0,5*Lab RMR©2013 7 Bibliography Main Textbooks Wayne Wolf; Computers as Components: principles of embedded computing system design, Morgan Kaufman, 2000. Richard Berry; Using the FreeRTOS Real Time Kernel, FreeRTOS 2009. http://shop.freertos.org/RTOS_primer_books_and_manual_s/1819.htm Complementary Textbooks Richard Zurawski (ed.); Embedded Systems Handbook, 2nd Ed.,Vol.I Embedded Systems Design and Verification, CRC Press, 2009 Richard Zurawski (ed.); Embedded Systems Handbook, 2nd Ed.,Vol.II Networked Embedded Systems, CRC Press, 2009 Phillip Laplante; Real-time systems design and analysis: an engineer's handbook, IEEE Press, 1993. Michael Barr; Programming Embedded Systems in C and C++. O'Reilly & Associates, Inc, 1999. Other documents RMR©2013 8 Manuals and Tutorials … see the website for some references.
  5. 5. Maths is not everything Embedded & Real-time Systems Introductory Notes: Embedded Systems Real-time Systems Real-time Systems’ Categories Pitfalls and Fallacies RMR©2012 Embedded & Real-time Systems Definition of an Embedded System The “computer” is a “component” of a more complex system. This system is not designed for a generic utilization but rather for a special purpose. The “computer system” physically interact with the real world. RTSs have requirements on the timing of these interactions. RMR©2013 10
  6. 6. Embedded & Real-time Systems Real-time Systems A Real-time System: Produces results that are correct both in logical and time domains a system is said to have real-time properties if its results are logically correct and were produced at the right time. a correct response given out of its expected time is considered incorrect from a real-time point of view! RMR©2013 11 Embedded & Real-time Systems Real-time System’s Categories Hard Real-time System: Every response respects a strict time specification otherwise it represents a system failure. Example: car airbag Firm Real-time System: Infrequent deadline misses are tolerable, but may degrade the system's quality of service. The usefulness of a result is zero after its deadline. Example: video game, non critical industrial process Soft Real-time System Most of its responses fall into a given time interval specification but not meeting this deadline does not represents a system failure -> occasional timing failures are acceptable RMR©2013 12 Example: travel booking systems
  7. 7. Embedded & Real-time Systems Pitfalls and Fallacies Real-time means ad-hoc approaches Real-time is equivalent to speed Technology will eventually solve realtime problems Real-time systems must use Assembly as the programming language RMR©2013 13

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