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  1. 1. Anti-ID Manifest<br />João Mattar<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />3-4: History of ID<br />5-6: Definition of ID<br />7-8: Notion of "systems"<br />9-10: Use of models<br />11-12: ID model #1<br />13-14: ID model #2<br />15-16: ID model #3<br />17-18: ID model #4<br />19-20: ID model #5<br />21-22: ID model #6<br />23-24: Constructivism<br />25-26: Empiricism<br />27-28: Behaviorism<br />29-30: Info.Proc.Theory<br />31-32: Relate ID & EdTech<br />33: APA references <br />
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  4. 4. History of ID<br />Instructional design was born committed to the training of troops for war and behaviorism.<br />This history of instructional design is the history of methods of instruction, on the instructor's side, not pedagogical mediation or learning.<br />With the Internet, social networks, games and simulations, traditional models of instructional design are not useful anymore. <br />We need new models, powered by the philosophy of constructivism, digital literacy, games, virtual worlds, mobile devices, and augmented reality-based learning (which are show in the following slides)<br />The image represents the umbilical relationship of ID history to both training and behaviorism.<br /><br />
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  6. 6. ID Definition<br />Instructional design is the systematic process of planning and producing instructional materials and activities following known principles of learning<br />Instructional Design should not be limited to the design of instruction, but should include mainly the design of learning and learning environments.<br />Instruction Design should develop principles to guide teachers on how to work more freely with his students, constructing knowledge without pre-determined final objectives.<br />Instructional Design should be flexible.<br />The image gives an idea of flexible and free design.<br /><br />
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  8. 8. Systematic<br />Systematic means covering the whole and connecting its different parts.<br />Instructional Design implements a systematic approach to deal with different aspects of instruction like the learner, context, tasks, objectives etc. and facilitate the production of instruction<br />For some authors systematic ISD became simply a checklist for process management, what the picture tries to represent. <br /><br />
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  10. 10. ID models<br />ID models function as principles for analysis, production and revision of instruction.<br />The models should be chosen according to the context of the project.<br />IDs should know and carry different models in their toolkits, to use and modify depending on the project.<br />ID models might ideally work on the paper, but in practice might become heavy and slow.<br />Traditional ID models are dead.<br />The image represents the idea of a toolkit with doors for different types of projects.<br /><br />
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  12. 12. Interactive Video-Multimedia Projects <br />Robert E. Bergman & Robert E. Bergman (1990)<br />Managing Interactive Video-Multimedia Projects<br />ID model for videos and multimedia products, with focus on process<br /><br /><br />
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  14. 14. Technology, Open Learning and Distance Education <br />A. W. Bates (1995)<br />ID model for developing open and distance education, calling the attention to flexibility and interaction<br /><br />,204,203,200_PIsitb-sticker-arrow-click,TopRight,35,-76_AA240_SH20_OU01_.jpg<br />
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  16. 16. Cascade<br />Nieveen (1997)<br />A computer-based EPSS to improve efficiency and quality in the development of curriculum materials<br /><br /><br />
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  18. 18. Introduction to Instructional Development<br />Gentry (1994)<br />ID model focused on development and support<br /><br /><br />
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  20. 20. Rapid Collaborative Prototyping<br />Dorsey, Goodrum and Schwen (1997)<br />Collaborative and interactive rapid prototyping, with user participation<br />,+Goodrum+and+Schwen+AND+Rapid+collaborative+prototyping+as+an+instructional+development+paradigm&source=bl&ots=LFJe0ZG2OX&sig=OoQGLpB2YpxkwCIWPmhtJ-zKJw8&hl=pt-BR&ei=zz6ES4v-FIWauAec4dnOAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Dorsey%2C%20Goodrum%20and%20Schwen%20AND%20Rapid%20collaborative%20prototyping%20as%20an%20instructional%20development%20paradigm&f=false<br />
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  22. 22. Designing and Improving Courses and Curricula in Higher Education<br />Diamong (1989)<br />ID model focused on higher education and classroom<br /><br /><br />
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  24. 24. Constructivism<br />Knowledge is actively constructed by the learner in his contact with other learners and the context<br />Piaget and Vygostky are two important names in the history of constructivism<br />Radical constructivism considers inadequate to propose learning objectives<br />The image represents the construction of knowledge to different directions, in a sense that learning objectives were not pre-defined<br /><br />
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  26. 26. Empiricism<br />Our knowledge is based on our senses and experience<br />Genuine Knowledge is a posteriori<br />English philosophers Locke, Berkeley and Hume are the most important empiricists in the history of philosophy<br />The image represents our 5 senses<br /><br />
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  28. 28. Behaviorism<br />Behaviorism is based on the idea that behavior might be predicted and controlled<br />Skinner is its most important representative<br />Some authors believe that the practice of formulating explicit learning objectives is sourced on behaviorism, what is registered in the expression behavioral objectives<br />The rat is the obvious metaphor of behaviorism<br /><br />
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  30. 30. Information Processing Theories<br />Learning is seen through transformation of information<br />The flow of information involves receptors, sensory register, working memory, long-term memory, retrieval and response<br />Cognitive psychology is provoking changes in ID<br />In an Internet scenario, is really transfer of information to long-term memory the main objective of information processing? Should learning be identified with the deposit of information on the long-term memory when open content is available freely on the Net? Memorizing does not seem to be an essential skill for the 21st century learner. Isn´t an ID based on that outdated? The image represents what Paulo Freire calls banking education, which deals with the deposit of content in the leaner's head.<br /><br />
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  32. 32. ID & Educational Technology<br />A flexible ID can help both teachers to design learning and learners to enhance learning with technology.<br />IDs can work as guides in the use of technology in education and the facilitation of learning.<br />Duck is an animal that does many things: flies, walks and swims, but does not do anything well. A duck project would be one in which a teacher would do everything by himself.<br />If the focus of ID is merely the production of instruction, the teacher becomes a robot. I’d rather then be a duck than a robot.<br /><br />
  33. 33. References<br />ARIAS, Sonia & CLARK, Kevin A. (2004). Instructional Technologies in Developing Countries: A Contextual Analysis Approach. TechTrends, Volume 48, Number 4, July 2004, p. 52-55, 70.<br />GORDON, Jack & ZEMKE, Ron. (2000). The attack on ISD. Training Magazine, 37(4), April 2000, p. 42-53.<br />MOLENDA, Michael. In Search of the Elusive ADDIE Model. [Published in slightly amended form in Performance Improvement, May/June 2003]. Retrieved from<br />REISER, Robert A. (2001). A History of Instructional Design and Technology: Part II: A History of Instructional Design. ETR&D, Vol. 49, No. 2, 2001, pp. 57–67.<br />SMITH, Patricia L. & RAGAN, Tilman J. (2005). Instructional design. 3rd ed. Hiboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.<br />ZEMKE, Ron & ALLISON, Rossett. (2007). A hard look at ISD. Training Magazine, 39(2), February 2002, p. 27-33.<br />