Four Key Characteristics Of Learning

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Four Key Characteristics Of Learning

Gráinne Conole

Joao Jose Saraiva da Fonseca

http://joaojosefonseca1.blogspot.com/

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Four Key Characteristics Of Learning

  1. 1. Towards technology renaissance: New technology-enabled Student Tasks Student Resources Tutor Tasks approaches for learning and teaching Each student selects three countries Check resource ok Gráinne Conole, LO – skills: how to for Level 1 students collaborate with Group nominate person to others eliminate multiple entries and agree dispute process The Open University UK Library key skills support pack: internet LO – skills: Find and retrieve data searching of data about these three countries Leeds University and assessing quality of data Internet Post research to group wiki What method used to post? 6th Annual Learning and Teaching Conference DONE: What if they Wiki Written / audio etc. need more help? 9th January 2009 DONE: Could nominated person have greater role? Rest of group Check summary and post comment Forum What else could tutor be doing? Each student posts at least one comment on forum about experience of achieving learning outcomes Reflect on tutor feedback Tutor reads comments and gives feedback to group
  2. 2. ‘Renaissance’
  3. 3. ‘Renaissance’ A revival or renewed interest... repurposing/rethinking - leading to something new
  4. 4. Outline • Technology trends • Learning parallels but ‘the elusive gap’ • Empirical evidence of actual practice • Case studies: OULDI and OL-Net Horizon reports NSF cyberlearning report IPTS reports: Learning 2.0
  5. 5. Increased complexity of mediation Pea
  6. 6. Increased complexity of mediation Oral Pea
  7. 7. Increased complexity of mediation Oral Symbols Pea
  8. 8. Increased complexity of mediation Oral Symbols Communication Pea
  9. 9. Increased complexity of mediation Oral Symbols Communication Network Pea
  10. 10. Increased complexity of mediation Oral Symbols Communication Network Cyberstructure Pea
  11. 11. Learner experience research Netgeneration, Digital Natives.... (Oblinger, Prensky, etc.), Ecar reports, Kennedy survey, Chris Jones, Personal Inquiry project
  12. 12. Learner experience research Learner Experience Research Social Network http://elesig.ning.com/ Netgeneration, Digital Natives.... (Oblinger, Prensky, etc.), Ecar reports, Kennedy survey, Chris Jones, Personal Inquiry project
  13. 13. Learner experience research Netgeneration, Digital Natives.... (Oblinger, Prensky, etc.), Ecar reports, Kennedy survey, Chris Jones, Personal Inquiry project
  14. 14. Learner experience research Netgeneration, Digital Natives.... (Oblinger, Prensky, etc.), Ecar reports, Kennedy survey, Chris Jones, Personal Inquiry project
  15. 15. Learner experience research Learning processes Netgeneration, Digital Natives.... (Oblinger, Prensky, etc.), Ecar reports, Kennedy survey, Chris Jones, Personal Inquiry project
  16. 16. Learner experience research Learning processes Task orientated Experiential Cumulative Netgeneration, Digital Natives.... (Oblinger, Prensky, etc.), Ecar reports, Kennedy survey, Chris Jones, Personal Inquiry project
  17. 17. Learner experience research Learning processes Task orientated Experiential Cumulative Netgeneration, Digital Natives.... (Oblinger, Prensky, etc.), Ecar reports, Kennedy survey, Chris Jones, Personal Inquiry project
  18. 18. Learner experience research Learning Attitudes & processes approaches Task orientated Experiential Cumulative Netgeneration, Digital Natives.... (Oblinger, Prensky, etc.), Ecar reports, Kennedy survey, Chris Jones, Personal Inquiry project
  19. 19. Learner experience research Learning Attitudes & processes approaches Task orientated Engaging & relevant Experiential Multi-faceted Cumulative Social aspects Netgeneration, Digital Natives.... (Oblinger, Prensky, etc.), Ecar reports, Kennedy survey, Chris Jones, Personal Inquiry project
  20. 20. Learning 2.0 research Conole (2008), Stepping over the edge... in Lee and McLoughlin
  21. 21. Learning 2.0 research Co-evolution of tools and practice Shift from Information to Communication Synergies between Web 2.0 and modern educational thinking Conole (2008), Stepping over the edge... in Lee and McLoughlin
  22. 22. Learning 2.0 research Conole (2008), Stepping over the edge... in Lee and McLoughlin
  23. 23. Learning 2.0 research Function Pre-2005 Web 2.0+ Text & data manipulation Word, spreadsheets Google docs Presentation Powerpoint Slideshare, YouTube Search engines Info seeking & handling Search engines, portlas +wikipeadia, RS feeds Communication Email, forums, chat Blogs, Twitter, Skype Visualisation Mindmapping tools Compendium, Cohere Bibliographic tools, e- Social bookmarking, blogs, Store & manage journals, repositories wikis Conole (2008), Stepping over the edge... in Lee and McLoughlin
  24. 24. Learning 2.0 research Function Pre-2005 Web 2.0+ Text & data manipulation Word, spreadsheets Google docs Presentation Powerpoint Slideshare, YouTube Search engines Info seeking & handling Search engines, portlas +wikipeadia, RS feeds Communication Email, forums, chat Blogs, Twitter, Skype Visualisation Mindmapping tools Compendium, Cohere Bibliographic tools, e- Social bookmarking, blogs, Store & manage journals, repositories wikis Conole (2008), Stepping over the edge... in Lee and McLoughlin
  25. 25. Learning design research
  26. 26. Learning design research Visualising design Understanding design Guiding Sharing design design
  27. 27. Learning design research Visualising design Understanding design Guiding Sharing design design Design lifecycle
  28. 28. Learning design research Visualising Barriers & design enablers Multiple tools & approaches Understanding design Guiding Sharing design design Design lifecycle
  29. 29. Learning design research Complexity of representation Visualising Barriers & design enablers Support: level and time Multiple tools & approaches Sharing valued but difficult Understanding design Guiding Sharing design design Design lifecycle
  30. 30. OER research McAndrew et al.
  31. 31. OER research Understanding of the process of McAndrew et al. creating & repurposing OERs
  32. 32. OER research Barriers & enablers User behaviour Sense- making tools under used Use but little repurposing Understanding of the process of McAndrew et al. creating & repurposing OERs
  33. 33. Issues • Transformation not as great as hoped • Echoes of past failures... Electronic page turning, unused repositories of good practice • Danger of technological determinism • Sustainability beyond funding • Changing practice is complex • New metaphors and meaning making needed
  34. 34. A technology renaissance? • Can we develop new technology-enabled approaches to support ‘core’ learning and teaching activities? • finding (resources, info, tools, expertise) • creating & adapting (resources) • designing/aggregating (learning activities or pathways) • communicating (peer-peer, learner-teacher etc) • reflecting (assessment, professional development)
  35. 35. Case studies • Learning design - OULDI • Compendium - creating, designing, reflecting • Cloudworks - finding, communicating, reflecting • Pedagogy schema - designing, reflecting • Open Educational Resources - OL-Net • OL-Net - finding, creating, designing, communicating, reflecting
  36. 36. Vision of enhancing the learner experience through pedagogically informed, innovative use of technologies Andrew Brasher, Paul Clark, Simon Cross, Juliette Culver, Martin Weller, Perry Williams
  37. 37. Bridge between Capture & pedagogy & represent designs technology Vision of enhancing the learner experience through pedagogically informed, innovative use of technologies Scaffold the Promote design process sharing and reuse Andrew Brasher, Paul Clark, Simon Cross, Juliette Culver, Martin Weller, Perry Williams
  38. 38. Bridge between Capture & pedagogy & represent designs technology Scaffold the Promote design process sharing and reuse Andrew Brasher, Paul Clark, Simon Cross, Juliette Culver, Martin Weller, Perry Williams
  39. 39. Bridge between Capture & pedagogy & represent designs technology Empirical evidence Scaffold the Promote design process sharing and reuse Andrew Brasher, Paul Clark, Simon Cross, Juliette Culver, Martin Weller, Perry Williams
  40. 40. Bridge between Capture & pedagogy & represent designs technology Tool development Empirical evidence Cloudworks CompendiumLD Scaffold the Promote design process sharing and reuse Andrew Brasher, Paul Clark, Simon Cross, Juliette Culver, Martin Weller, Perry Williams
  41. 41. Bridge between Resources and events Capture & pedagogy & represent designs technology Tool development Empirical evidence Cloudworks CompendiumLD Workshops Schema Scaffold the Cloudfests Summits Promote design process Design challenges sharing and reuse Andrew Brasher, Paul Clark, Simon Cross, Juliette Culver, Martin Weller, Perry Williams
  42. 42. Schema Rethinking design through events and schema to meet a range of needs Events
  43. 43. Schema Events
  44. 44. Schema Course Design Challenge Events
  45. 45. Schema Course Design Challenge Design summits Events
  46. 46. Schema Course Design Challenge Design summits Events Cloudfests
  47. 47. Schema Course Design Challenge Design summits Events Cloudfests
  48. 48. Schema Course Design Challenge Design summits Events Cloudfests
  49. 49. 18th September2008 Design challenge: design a short course in a day are you up to it???
  50. 50. Stalls really useful Amazed at how much we achieved
  51. 51. CompendiumLD
  52. 52. CompendiumLD
  53. 53. CompendiumLD
  54. 54. CompendiumLD Core icon set
  55. 55. CompendiumLD Core icon set Design icon set
  56. 56. Guiding and visualising designs The CompendiumLD tool
  57. 57. Guiding and visualising designs The CompendiumLD tool
  58. 58. Guiding and visualising designs Activity Assignment Outcome Resource Role Stop Task Tool The CompendiumLD tool
  59. 59. Guiding and visualising designs Activity Assignment Outcome Resource Time Role Stop Task Tool The CompendiumLD tool
  60. 60. Guiding and visualising designs Student Tasks Activity Each student selects three countries Assignment Find and retrieve data about these three countries Outcome Post research to group wiki Resource Time Role Group nominate person to eliminate multiple entries Stop Coordinator makes changes Rest check and agree Task Tool Each student posts at least one comment on forum Student gets feedback from tutor The CompendiumLD tool
  61. 61. Guiding and visualising designs Student Tasks Student Resources Activity Each student selects three countries List of countries Assignment Find and retrieve data Internet about these three countries Outcome Post research to group wiki Resource Time Role Group nominate person to eliminate multiple entries Stop Coordinator makes changes Rest check and agree Task Tool Each student posts at least one comment on forum Student gets feedback from tutor The CompendiumLD tool
  62. 62. Guiding and visualising designs Student Tasks Student Resources Activity Each student selects three countries List of countries Assignment Find and retrieve data Internet about these three countries Outcome Post research to group wiki Resource Wiki Time Role Group nominate person to eliminate multiple entries Forum Stop Coordinator makes changes Rest check and agree Task Tool Each student posts at least one comment on forum Student gets feedback from tutor The CompendiumLD tool
  63. 63. Guiding and visualising designs Student Tasks Student Resources Activity Each student selects three countries List of countries Assignment Find & critically assess Find and retrieve data Internet relevant resources about these three countries Outcome Post research to group wiki Resource Wiki Time Role Group nominate person to eliminate multiple entries Forum Stop Coordinator makes changes Rest check and agree Task Tool Each student posts at least one comment on forum Student gets feedback from tutor The CompendiumLD tool
  64. 64. Guiding and visualising designs Student Tasks Student Resources Activity Each student selects three countries List of countries Assignment Find & critically assess Find and retrieve data Internet relevant resources about these three countries Outcome Post research to group wiki Resource DONE: What if they need more help? Wiki Time Role Group nominate person to eliminate multiple entries Forum Stop Coordinator makes changes Rest check and agree Task Tool Each student posts at least one comment on forum Student gets feedback from tutor The CompendiumLD tool
  65. 65. Targeted search
  66. 66. Cloudworks
  67. 67. Cloudworks Many repositories of good practice, but how do you develop the community???
  68. 68. RSS feeds Cloudworks Playlists Follow and be followed Friends APIs Many repositories of good practice, but how do you develop the community??? Share Embed Comment Aggregate
  69. 69. Vision & principles • Enable people to find, share & • Low barrier to entry discuss learning & teaching ideas • People-orientated • Connect people with similar • Open site, open content interests • Target particular communities • Showcase work • The site acting as a conduit • Provide a place for different communities • Encourage sharing
  70. 70. ‘Social networking makes little sense if we leave out the objects that mediate the ties between people Engeström
  71. 71. ‘Social networking makes little sense if we leave out the objects that mediate the ties between people Engeström Design framework for sociality Enabling practice Mimicking reality Building identity Actualising self Bouman et al.
  72. 72. Cloudworks v0.2 Social networking site for finding, sharing & discussing learning and teaching ideas and designs
  73. 73. All clouds
  74. 74. Ascilite conference Cloudscape
  75. 75. Ascilite conference Cloudscape Overview of the cloudscape: a space to post and discuss ideas seen at Ascilite
  76. 76. Ascilite conference Cloudscape Overview of the cloudscape: a space to post and discuss ideas seen at Ascilite
  77. 77. Ascilite conference Cloudscape Overview of the cloudscape: a space to post and discuss ideas seen at Ascilite Design a short course in a day
  78. 78. Ascilite conference Cloudscape Overview of the cloudscape: a space to post and discuss ideas seen at Ascilite Design a short course in a day Workshop on Secondlife
  79. 79. Ascilite conference Cloudscape Overview of the cloudscape: a space to post and discuss ideas seen at Ascilite Design a short course in a day Workshop on Secondlife Paper on mobile learning
  80. 80. Ascilite conference Cloudscape Overview of the cloudscape: a space to post and discuss ideas seen at Ascilite Design a short course in a day Workshop on Secondlife Paper on mobile learning OULDI site
  81. 81. Ascilite conference Cloudscape Overview of the cloudscape: a space to post and discuss ideas seen at Ascilite Design a short course in a day Workshop on Secondlife Paper on mobile learning Peer OULDI assessment site criteria
  82. 82. Ascilite conference Cloudscape Overview of the cloudscape: a space to post and discuss ideas seen at Ascilite Design a short course in a day Workshop on Secondlife Paper on mobile learning Peer OULDI assessment site criteria CompendiumLD
  83. 83. Ascilite conference Cloudscape Overview of the cloudscape: a space to post and discuss ideas seen at Ascilite Design a short course in a day Workshop on Secondlife Paper on mobile learning Peer OULDI assessment site criteria CompendiumLD LAMS
  84. 84. Ascilite conference Cloudscape Overview of the cloudscape: a space to post and discuss ideas seen at Ascilite Design a short course in a day Import existing Clouds Workshop on New clouds Secondlife added by delegates Paper on mobile learning Peer OULDI assessment site criteria CompendiumLD LAMS
  85. 85. Ascilite conference Cloudscape Overview of the cloudscape: a space to post and discuss ideas seen at Ascilite Design a short course in a day Import existing Clouds Workshop on New clouds New clouds Secondlife added by delegates Paper on mobile learning Peer OULDI assessment site criteria CompendiumLD LAMS
  86. 86. Ascilite conference Cloudscape Overview of the cloudscape: a space to post and discuss ideas seen at Ascilite Design a short course in a day Import existing Clouds Workshop on New clouds New clouds Secondlife added by delegates Paper on mobile learning Peer OULDI assessment site criteria CompendiumLD LAMS Web Peer Assessment webparesearch.blogspot.com/ Information literacy webparesearch.blogspot.com/
  87. 87. Who and what I am following, who’s following me
  88. 88. Who and what I am following, who’s following me
  89. 89. Who and what I am following, who’s following me My cloudstream dynamically updates
  90. 90. Cloudscapes
  91. 91. Cloudscapes Workshop Course Research topic Conference Design team Topic Tool Project
  92. 92. It’s not a repository it’s a conversation
  93. 93. It’s not a repository it’s a conversation Success stories Visual designs Concrete vs. abstract Quality control Transferable designs Barriers to contribution Changing practice Ownership Comments make it come alive Openness
  94. 94. A pedagogy schema Dyke, Conole et al., (2007)
  95. 95. Thinking & reflection A pedagogy schema Dyke, Conole et al., (2007)
  96. 96. Thinking & reflection A pedagogy schema Communication & interaction Dyke, Conole et al., (2007)
  97. 97. Thinking & reflection A pedagogy schema Communication Experience & interaction & activity Dyke, Conole et al., (2007)
  98. 98. Thinking & reflection A pedagogy schema Communication Experience & interaction & activity Dyke, Conole et al., (2007)
  99. 99. Thinking & reflection A pedagogy schema Communication Experience & interaction & activity Evidence & Dyke, Conole et al., (2007) demonstration
  100. 100. Thinking & reflection A pedagogy schema ... to provide guidance on mapping pedagogy principles to aspects of learning Communication Experience & interaction & activity Evidence & Dyke, Conole et al., (2007) demonstration
  101. 101. Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  102. 102. Thinking & Experience & Conversation & Evidence & Principles reflection activity interaction demonstration Reflect on experience and show understanding Frequent interactive exercises & feedback Provides support for independent learning Supports collaborative activities Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  103. 103. Thinking & Experience & Conversation & Evidence & Principles reflection activity interaction demonstration Reflect on experience and show understanding Frequent interactive exercises & feedback Provides support for independent learning Supports collaborative activities Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  104. 104. Thinking & Experience & Conversation & Evidence & Principles reflection activity interaction demonstration Reflect on experience and show understanding Frequent interactive exercises & feedback Provides support for independent learning Supports collaborative activities Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  105. 105. Thinking & Experience & Conversation & Evidence & Principles reflection activity interaction demonstration Reflect on experience and show understanding Frequent interactive exercises & feedback Provides support for independent learning Supports collaborative activities Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  106. 106. Thinking & Experience & Conversation & Evidence & Principles reflection activity interaction demonstration Reflect on Mapping learning experience and activities show against goals understanding Frequent interactive exercises & feedback Provides support for independent learning Supports collaborative activities Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  107. 107. Thinking & Experience & Conversation & Evidence & Principles reflection activity interaction demonstration Reflect on Mapping learning experience and activities show against goals understanding Frequent interactive exercises & feedback Provides support for independent learning Supports collaborative activities Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  108. 108. Thinking & Experience & Conversation & Evidence & Principles reflection activity interaction demonstration Reflect on Mapping learning Aggregation of experience and activities learning show against goals achievements understanding Frequent interactive exercises & feedback Provides support for independent learning Supports collaborative activities Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  109. 109. Thinking & Experience & Conversation & Evidence & Principles reflection activity interaction demonstration Reflect on Mapping learning Aggregation of experience and activities learning show against goals achievements understanding Frequent interactive exercises & feedback Provides support for independent learning Supports collaborative activities Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  110. 110. Thinking & Experience & Conversation & Evidence & Principles reflection activity interaction demonstration Reflect on Mapping learning Aggregation of experience and activities learning show against goals achievements understanding Frequent interactive exercises & feedback Provides support for independent learning Supports collaborative activities Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  111. 111. Thinking & Experience & Conversation & Evidence & Principles reflection activity interaction demonstration Reflect on Mapping learning Aggregation of experience and activities learning show against goals achievements understanding Frequent interactive exercises & feedback Provides support for independent learning Supports collaborative activities Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  112. 112. Thinking & Experience & Conversation & Evidence & Principles reflection activity interaction demonstration Reflect on Mapping learning Aggregation of experience and activities learning show against goals achievements understanding Frequent interactive exercises & feedback Provides support for independent learning Supports collaborative activities Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  113. 113. Thinking & Experience & Conversation & Evidence & Principles reflection activity interaction demonstration Reflect on Mapping learning Aggregation of experience and activities learning show against goals achievements understanding Frequent interactive exercises & feedback Provides support for independent learning Supports collaborative activities Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  114. 114. Thinking & Experience & Conversation & Evidence & Principles reflection activity interaction demonstration Reflect on Mapping learning Aggregation of experience and activities learning show against goals achievements understanding Frequent interactive exercises & feedback Provides support for independent learning Supports collaborative activities Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  115. 115. Thinking & Experience & Conversation & Evidence & Principles reflection activity interaction demonstration Reflect on Mapping learning Aggregation of experience and activities learning show against goals achievements understanding Frequent interactive exercises & feedback Provides support for independent learning Supports collaborative activities Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  116. 116. Thinking & Experience & Conversation & Evidence & Principles reflection activity interaction demonstration Reflect on Mapping learning Aggregation of experience and activities learning show against goals achievements understanding Frequent interactive exercises & feedback Provides support for independent learning Supports collaborative activities Conole, 2008, New Schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne article
  117. 117. Challenges Representation: forms and purpose Visualisation: what and why Schema: format and use Support: real and virtual Guidance: type and form Evidence: what and value Development: research vs. practice Practice: current and changing Sharing: how and why
  118. 118. OL-NET A vision for a participatory network of producers, users and researchers of OERs...
  119. 119. OER cycle
  120. 120. OER cycle Select
  121. 121. OER cycle Design Select
  122. 122. OER cycle Design Select Use
  123. 123. OER cycle Design Select Use Evaluate
  124. 124. Generic tool Specialised tool Resource OER cycle Schema Design Select Use Evaluate
  125. 125. Generic tool Specialised tool Resource OER cycle Schema Design Openlearn Select Use Google Cloudworks Evaluate
  126. 126. Generic tool Mapping schema Specialised tool Topic OER CompendiumLD Resource OER cycle Schema Design Openlearn Select Use Google Cloudworks Evaluate
  127. 127. Generic tool Mapping schema Specialised tool Topic OER CompendiumLD Resource OER cycle Schema Design VLE Openlearn Select Use Google Class aggregated resources Cloudworks Evaluate
  128. 128. Generic tool Mapping schema Specialised tool Topic OER CompendiumLD Resource OER cycle Schema Design VLE Openlearn Select Use Google Class aggregated resources Cloudworks Evaluate Analysis tools Student survey
  129. 129. OER cycle
  130. 130. Generic tool Specialised tool Resource Schema OER cycle
  131. 131. Generic tool Specialised tool Resource Schema OER cycle
  132. 132. OER network
  133. 133. OER network
  134. 134. OER network
  135. 135. OER network
  136. 136. OER network
  137. 137. OER network People/networks Meta-analysis/ synthesis Tools, methods, approaches Designs, evaluations, case studies
  138. 138. OL-NET
  139. 139. Key questions • Students and teachers - personalised environment of tools vs. institutional tools? • Implications of immersive 3D-worlds such as SecondLife? • Students increasingly digital – demands on institutions? • Digital divide smaller, but deeper for those who can’t or won’t use technologies? • What is the evidence that the students can use these technologies for academic purposes? • Many argue that to ‘get’ web 2.0 you need to do it - is there a widening chasm within our institutional of those who ‘get’ it and those who don’t?
  140. 140. Further info • OU Learning design initiative - http://ouldi.open.ac.uk • Slidecast on using CompendiumLD - www.slideshare.net/PerryW/using-compendiumld-to- design-a-learning-activity-435001/ • Cloudworks: Conole, G., Culver, J., Well, M., Williams, P., Cross, S., Clark, P. and Brasher, A. (2008), Cloudworks: social networking for learning design, Ascilite Conference, 30th Nov – 3rd Dec 2008, Melbourne, www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/melbourne08/procs/conole.pdf • CompendiumLD: Conole, G., Brasher, A., Cross, S., Weller, M., Clark, P. and White, J. (2008), Visualising learning design to foster and support good practice and creativity, Educational Media International,Volume 54, Issue 3, 177-194 . • Design schema: Conole, G. (2008), New schema for mapping pedagogies and technologies, Ariadne magazine, www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue56/conole/ • Technology trends: Conole, G. (forthcoming), Stepping over the edge: the implications of new technologies for education in M. Lee and C. McLouglin, Web 2.0-based e-learning: applying social informatics for tertiary teaching, Hersey, PA: ICI Global • OpenLearn: McAndrew, P. and Santos, A. (2008), Learning from OpenLearn Research Report 2006-2008, Open University: Milton Keynes
  141. 141. OULDI: OULDI.OPEN.AC.UK BLOG: WWW.E4INNOVATION.COM

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