AJOURNEYTOADOLESCENCE<br />By. Joanne A. Saldana<br />
Adolescence is a time of change…<br />…changes in the body,<br />…changing emotions,<br />..being more intellectual,<br />…changes in social life.<br />All these changes caused you the feeling of awkwardness.<br />You need to know why these changes are happening…<br />…and to realized that these changes are perfectlynormal.<br />
Hormone<br />A chemical messenger which is made and secreted by the endocrine gland.<br />Female Hormone/s<br /><ul><li>Estrogen
Progesterone</li></ul> (responsible for thickening the active layer of the uterus or womb)<br />Male Hormone<br /><ul><li>Testosterone</li></li></ul><li>Hypothalamus<br />Small but vital gland<br /><ul><li>conductor and regulator of daily operations of the body.
responsible in orchestrating the actions of the pituitary glands which in turn triggers other endocrine glands
integrating and balancing the works of the internal organs that are governed by the autonomic nervous system
sleep center, temperature-regulating center, and appetite and hunger center of the body.</li></li></ul><li>Pituitary<br />A pea-sized mass lying at the base of the brain.<br /> It is composed of three parts: anterior lobe, <br /> posterior lobe, and parsintermedia.<br />Anterior lobe<br /><ul><li>closely associated with hypothalamus because it is connected through a network of specialized vessels and secrets six different hormones.</li></ul>Posterior lobe<br /><ul><li>an outgrowth of the brain stream
it secrets two hormones that affect the smooth muscles of the body such as the uterus, the muscles that are involved in the circulation and in the constriction of blood vessels.</li></ul>Pars intermedia<br /><ul><li> boundary between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary</li></li></ul><li>Pituitary<br />A pea-sized mass lying at the base of the brain.<br />Pituitary hormones have two functions:<br /><ul><li>Secondary sexual characteristics
Promotes fertility</li></li></ul><li>Parathyroid Glands<br /><ul><li>attached in the thyroid glands.
controls the levels of calcium and phosphorous.</li></ul>*Calcium and phosphorus <br /><ul><li>minerals required for the growth of healthy bones and good muscles contraction.</li></li></ul><li>Adrenals<br />Secretes more than 50 hormones<br />Major hormonal secretions from medulla are:<br /><ul><li>Epinephrine (adrenalin)</li></ul>-Responsible for the “response fight” in times of great danger, anxiety, or stress.<br /><ul><li>Aldosterone</li></ul>-prevents excess sodium and water loss into urine cortisolcontrols protein metabolism and the production of glucose by the liver<br />-regulates the connective tissue structure<br />-regulates the amount of sodium and potassium in the body<br />
Pancreas<br />Both part of the digestive and endocrine glands.<br />Releases digestive juices<br />Produces insulin andglucagons<br />Insulin<br /><ul><li>Regulates metabolism of sugar in the body
Stimulates cells to take glucose or blood sugar from the body.</li></ul>Glycogen<br /><ul><li>A starch stored in the liver that maintains blood sugar levels between meals.</li></ul>“Obese people are more risk to have type II diabetes”<br />A1C >_ 5.7% testing of sugar content of the body. (above 30years old)<br />
Gonads<br />(organs that produces gametes)<br /><ul><li>Testes
Puberty<br />-It is the period of physical development during which the people become able to produce children. <br /><ul><li>Males and females go through puberty at varying age from as young as 8 yrs. to as old as 16 yrs.
It usually takes 2-4 yrs. for all of the changes of puberty to be completed.</li></li></ul><li>
GnRH(Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone) or LHRH<br />- "the nourishment of the gonads"<br />LH (Luteinizing Hormone)<br />- encourages masculinity <br />FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)<br /><ul><li>promotes fertility</li></ul>*Gonads<br />-Organs that produce gametes (eggs or sperm)<br />i.e. the ovaries and testes.<br />Puberty is not something which happens overnight.<br />
A rare disorder which </li></ul>affects around <br />1 in 10,000 men and <br />1 in 70,000 women<br /><ul><li>They have hormonal deficiency </li></ul>(sexually underdeveloped and infertile)<br />*Franz J. Kallman (1944)<br />
Klinefelter Syndrome<br />(Hypergonadotrophins)<br />-Over production of gonadtrophins.<br />-a condition in which human males have an extra X chromosome.<br />*Dr. Harry Klinefelter (1942)<br />
Epiphyseal plate<br />Calcification<br /> ("growth plates")<br /><ul><li>located in bone endings and are responsible for growth in the length of the bone.
Process by which calcium is deposited to the bones.</li></ul>Hyperglycemia<br />Hypoglycemia<br /><ul><li>too much sugar in the bloodstream
Criteria for the Diagnosis of Diabetes<br />Symptoms of diabetes + casual plasma glucose conc= or > 200mg/dl (11.01 mmol/l)<br />FPG =or > 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l)<br />Normal 80-90 (4.4-5.5 mmol)<br />Pre-diabetes 100-125 mg/dl (5.5-6.9 mmol) IFG<br />Diabetes 126 mg/dl<br />2-h PG = or > 200 mg/dl<br />
Symptoms of DIABETES<br />Uhaw<br />Polyuria<br />Ihingihi<br />Polydipsia<br />Polyphagia<br />Panlalabongmata<br />Unexpalined weight loss<br />Pamamanhidng toes and finger tip<br />Become obese because you eat a lot or develop weight loss even you eat a lot because the production of insulin is not enough.<br />Other: Blurring vision, weakness, non-healing wound<br />
Types of DIABETES<br />TYPE I<br />Diagnose on teenagers, adolescence.<br />No insulin in the body<br />TYPE II<br />Most common form of diabetes<br />People can develop it at any age<br />Beta cells do not make enough insulin, or the fat, muscles, liver cells do not use it properly<br />
How to prevent DIABETES?<br />Healthy eating habits<br />Good exercise program<br />Maintain reasonable body weight<br />Make wise food choices most of the time<br />Physically active everyday. Jogging, walking, cycling (30mind a day, 5times a week)<br />BMI = Kg(weight)/m2(height)<br />Avoid four legged animals<br />¼ protein, ¼ carbo, ½ vegetables<br />Drink first, eat veggies, then less rice<br />
How to prevent DIABETES?<br />Obesity/Overweight leads to diabetes and hypertension<br />Avoid crash diets<br />Set reasonable-loss goal<br />Diet tip: Loss 1pound per week/ you need to loss 500calories per week<br /><ul><li>The cause are known.