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Modern periodic table ppt

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Modern periodic table ppt

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Modern periodic table ppt

  1. 1. Buds Public School By – Joanna Coutinho Chemistry Project Modern Periodic Table and its trends
  2. 2. Development of the Periodic Table In 1864, John Newlands noted that when the elements were arranged in order of atomic number that every eighth element had similar properties. He referred to this as the law of octaves. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer independently proposed the idea of periodicity. Mendeleev grouped elements (66) according to properties. Mendeleev predicted properties for elements not yet discovered, such as Ga.
  3. 3. Development of the Periodic Table However, Mendeleev could not explain inconsistencies such as argon coming before potassium in the periodic table, despite having a higher atomic mass. In 1913, Henry Moseley discovered the correlation between the number of protons (atomic number) and frequency of X-rays generated. Ordering the periodic table by atomic number instead of atomic mass enabled scientists to make sense of discrepancies. Entries today include atomic number and symbol; and are arranged according to electron configuration.
  4. 4. Dmitri Mendeleev (1869) In 1869 Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer (Germany) published nearly identical classification schemes for elements known to date. The periodic table is base on the similarity of properties and re-activities exhibited by certain elements.
  5. 5. Classification of Elements The main group elements (also called the representative elements) are the elements in Groups 1A through 7A.
  6. 6. The Modern Periodic Table The transition metals are found in Group 1B and 3B through 8B.  Group 2B have filled d subshells and are not transition metals.
  7. 7. The Modern Periodic Table The lanthanides and actinides make up the f-block transition elements.
  8. 8. Across the Periodic Table Periods: Are arranged horizontally across the periodic table (rows 1-7) These elements have the same number of valence shells. 1 IA 18 VIIIA 1 2 IIA 13 IIIA 14 IVA 15 VA 16 VIA 17 VIIA 2 3 3 IIIB 4 IVB 5 VB 6 VIB 7 VIIB 8 9 VIIIB 10 11 IB 12 IIB 4 5 6 7 2nd Period 6th Period
  9. 9. Down the Periodic Table Family: Are arranged vertically down the periodic table (columns or group, 1- 18 or 1-8 A,B) These elements have the same number electrons in the outer most shells, the valence shell. 1 IA 18 VIIIA 1 2 IIA 13 IIIA 14 IVA 15 VA 16 VIA 17 VIIA 2 3 3 IIIB 4 IVB 5 VB 6 VIB 7 VIIB 8 9 VIIIB 10 11 IB 12 IIB 4 5 6 7 Alkali Family: 1 e- in the valence shell Halogen Family: 7 e- in the valence shell
  10. 10. • Columns of elements are called groups or families. • Elements in each family have similar but not identical properties. • For example, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and other members of family IA are all soft, white, shiny metals. • All elements in a family have the same number of valence electrons. • Each horizontal row of elements is called a period. • The elements in a period are not alike in properties. • In fact, the properties change greatly across even given row. • The first element in a period is always an extremely active solid. The last element in a period, is always an inactive gas. Families Periods
  11. 11. Infamous Families of the Periodic Table Notable families of the Periodic Table and some important members 1 IA 18 VIIIA 1 2 IIA 13 IIIA 14 IVA 15 VA 16 VIA 17 VIIA 2 3 3 IIIB 4 IVB 5 VB 6 VIB 7 VIIB 8 9 VIIIB 10 11 IB 12 IIB 4 5 6 7 Alkali Alkaline (earth) Transition Metals Noble Gas Halogen Chalcogens
  12. 12. Classification of Elements The noble gases are found in Group 8A and have completely filled p subshells.
  13. 13. Noble Gases Noble Gases are colorless gases that are extremely un- reactive. One important property of the noble gases is their inactivity. They are inactive because their outermost energy level is full. Because they do not readily combine with other elements to form compounds, the noble gases are called inert. The family of noble gases includes helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. All the noble gases are found in small amounts in the earth's atmosphere.
  14. 14. Reading the Periodic Table: Classification
  15. 15. Trend in Atomic Radius Atomic Radius: The size of at atomic specie as determine by the boundaries of the valence e-. Largest atomic species are those found in the SW corner since these atoms have the largest n, but the smallest Zeff.
  16. 16. Trend in Ionization Potential Ionization potential: The energy required to remove the valence electron from an atomic specie. Largest toward NE corner of PT since these atoms hold on to their valence e- the tightest.
  17. 17. Trend in Electron Affinity Electron Affinity: The energy release when an electron is added to an atom. Most favorable toward NE corner of PT since these atoms have a great affinity for e-.
  18. 18. What does it mean to be reactive? We will be describing elements according to their reactivity. Elements that are reactive bond easily with other elements to make compounds. Some elements are only found in nature bonded with other elements. What makes an element reactive? 1. An incomplete valence electron level. 2. All atoms (except hydrogen) want to have 8 electrons in their very outermost energy level (This is called the rule of octet.) 3. Atoms bond until this level is complete. Atoms with few valence electrons lose them during bonding. Atoms with 6, 7, or 8 valence electrons gain electrons during bonding.
  19. 19. Cation Formation 11p+ Na atom 1 valence electron Valence e- lost in ion formation Effective nuclear charge on remaining electrons increases. Remaining e- are pulled in closer to the nucleus. Ionic size decreases. Result: a smaller sodium cation, Na+
  20. 20. Anion Formation 17p+ Chlorine atom with 7 valence e- One e- is added to the outer shell. Effective nuclear charge is reduced and the e- cloud expands. A chloride ion is produced. It is larger than the original atom.
  21. 21. The End 

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