Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
(In-Depth Study of Technical Articles in Second and Foreign with a Special Focus
on the Teaching of English Language Skill...
A Three-Dimensional Grammar Framework.
FORM
MEANING
USE
DIANE LARSEN-FREEMAN
In Teaching Grammar...
Larsen-Freeman challenges conventional views of
grammar. Instead of simply analyzing grammatical
fo...
Grammatical Structures
•Not only have (morphosyntactic) form, they are
also used to express meaning (semantics) in
context...
Form/
Structure
Use/
Pragmatics
Meaning/
Semantics
Morphosyntactic and
lexical patterns
Phonemic/
graphemic patterns
Lexic...
A Three Dimensional Framework
Representations:
•Wedges of pie- dimensions not hierarchically arranged
as many traditional ...
How is it
formed?
When/ why
is it used?
What does
it mean?
A teacher of grammar
might begin by asking
the questions posed ...
s’ vs. ‘s
/z/ /s/ /əz /
‘s vs Possessive determiner
‘s vs of the
‘s vs noun compound
Possession
Description
amount
Relatio...
Form of Possessive
s’ vs. ‘s
/z/ /s/ / z /ə
This way of forming possessives in English
requires inflecting regular singula...
Meaning of Possessive
Besides possession, the possessive or
genitive form can indicate description (a debtor’s
prison), am...
Use of Possessive
‘s vs Possessive determiner
‘s vs of the
‘s vs noun compound
Filling in this wedge requires that we ask ...
THE DIMENSIONS FRAMEWORK
The framework does however, help to
organize the facts. Furthermore by doing
this, teachers can m...
THE
CHALLENGE
•All three dimensions have to be mastered by
the learner (although not necessarily
consciously)
•Important i...
As teachers, we do hope to have students able
to gramatical structures accurately, meaningfully
and appropriately. In othe...
THE LEARNING
PROCESSInsights from (SLA) reasearch on how students naturally develop their ability to
interpret and produce...
WHAT DOES TEACHING
GRAMMAR MEAN?
“It means enabling language students to use
linguistic forms accurately, meaningfully,
an...
THE TEACHING PROCESS /
APPROACHES
• In keeping with language form approaches, traditional
grammar teaching has employed a ...
THE TEACHING PROCESS /
APPROACHES
• The grammar that is taught is not scheduled in advance as
it is with structural syllab...
APPROACHES ON
HOW TO ADDRESS
GRAMMARThe bringing to students’ attention, or promoting the “noticing” of
some feature of gr...
APPROACHES ON
HOW TO ADDRESS
GRAMMAR
• Recasting/ Reformulate
Example (Error on meaning, teacher recast what the
student h...
APPROACHES ON
HOW TO ADDRESS
GRAMMAR
• Recasting/ Reformulate
Example (Error on use, the teacher would recast what the
stu...
APPROACHES ON
HOW TO ADDRESS
GRAMMAR
• Enhancing Input or Input Flooding (Sharwood Smith, 1993)
Might be an especially eff...
APPROACHES ON
HOW TO ADDRESS
GRAMMAR• Consciousness-raising Task (Fotos and Ellis, 1991)
The students’ job is to induce a ...
APPROACHES ON
HOW TO ADDRESS
GRAMMAR
• Consciousness-raising Task (Fotos and Ellis, 1991)
Caroll and Swain (1993) suggests...
APPROACHES ON
HOW TO ADDRESS
GRAMMAR
• The Garden Path Strategy (Tomasello and Herron, 1988-89)
This means giving students...
APPROACHES ON
HOW TO ADDRESS
GRAMMAR
• Input Processing (Van Patten, 1996)
Rather than working on a rule learning and rule...
OUTPUT
PRODUCTIO
N
Swain (1985)
It pushes students to move beyond semantic
processing to syntactic processing.
COMMUNICATI...
OUTPUT
PRODUCTION
• Hypothesis -Testing Process
When students attempt to produce structures they get to test their
hypothe...
OUTPUT
PRODUCTION
• Collaborative Dialogue
(Donato, 1994) Learners can provide support for each other,
spurred development...
OUTPUT
PRODUCTION
• ‘Grammaring’
e.g. Helping students be able to use gramar skillfully, a goal that
rrequires significant...
EXAMPLES OF
OUTPUT ACTIVITIES
REINFORCING FORM
• Twenty Questions
• Game on Possessives
• Information-Gap Activities
• Sen...
EXAMPLES OF
OUTPUT ACTIVITIES
REINFORCING MEANING
• Realia and pictures (Four Pics One Word)
• TPR Activities
• Concentrat...
EXAMPLES OF
OUTPUT ACTIVITIES
REINFORCING USE
•Role plays
•Dilemmas
Avoid drilling.
20 Questions.
Role playing.
Simulation.
Activities
involving
flashcards
or pictures.
THE IMPORTANCE OF
FEEDBACK
•Zero Teacher Intervention
•Collecting Mistakes
•Classifying errors according to the Pie Chart
VIDEO PRESENTATIONS
• Teaching Grammar Communicatively
• Teaching Grammar In Action
To Grammar Instruction
This approach is designed to help
learners develop both fluency and
accuracy
Cognitive Approach
Is cross-disciplinary, with contributions from
psychology, philosophy, psycholinguistics,
neuroscience,...
The Need for Cognitive Approach
The usefulness of cognitive approach to grammar
instruction in ESL/ EFL becomes clear when...
HOM
E
VACATION
TRAVEL
Teaching VocabularyTeaching Vocabulary
EXPLICIT LEARNING
IMPLICIT LEARNING
Issues on Effective Vocabulary Learning:
Explicit Vocabulary Learning
• Students engage in activities that focus attention on
vocabulary.
• Sokmen (1997) highlight...
Implicit Vocabulary Learning
• Incidental Vocabulary Learning that occurs when the mind is focused
elsewhere , such as on ...
What to Teach?
• Researchers advocate that learners should initially be taught a large
productive vocabulary of at least 2...
Teaching Techniques and Activities
• Learning words in word association lists
• Focusing on highlighted words on text
• Pl...
Vocabulary Learning Strategies
• Guessing Word Meaning from Context
This strategy is a key vocabulary learning skill for d...
Vocabulary Learning Strategies
• Guessing Word Meaning from Context
This strategy is a key vocabulary learning skill for d...
COLLOCATIONS
Patterns consists of pairs or groups of words that co-occur with
very high frequency and are important in voc...
Gap-Filling Activity
job work labor occupation
position task employment
1. That job requires hard physical ________.
2. In...
IDIOMS
• Idioms are multiword units that are completely fixed.
• Distinguished as having a unitary meaning that cannot be ...
• How to Teach Vocabulary
• Tips and Steps in Teaching Vocabulary
• 4 Pics 1 Word Template
CONCLUSION:
Lexical competence is a central part of
communicative competence, and teaching vocabulary
a central part of te...
Reference:
CELCE-MURCIA, Marianne. TEACHING ENGLISH AS A
SECOND OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE. 3RD
Edition. 2006
by Heinle and Heinl...
Teaching Grammar and Vocabulary
Teaching Grammar and Vocabulary
Teaching Grammar and Vocabulary
Teaching Grammar and Vocabulary
Teaching Grammar and Vocabulary
Teaching Grammar and Vocabulary
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Teaching Grammar and Vocabulary

3,249 views

Published on

Reference: Celce-Murcia

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Teaching Grammar and Vocabulary

  1. 1. (In-Depth Study of Technical Articles in Second and Foreign with a Special Focus on the Teaching of English Language Skills)
  2. 2. A Three-Dimensional Grammar Framework. FORM MEANING USE DIANE LARSEN-FREEMAN
  3. 3. In Teaching Grammar... Larsen-Freeman challenges conventional views of grammar. Instead of simply analyzing grammatical form, she includes grammatical meaning and use it as well. Then building on what is known about the way grammar is learned, she offers ways to teach grammar consistent with contemporary theory and the need to “focus form” within the meaning-based or communicative approach.
  4. 4. Grammatical Structures •Not only have (morphosyntactic) form, they are also used to express meaning (semantics) in context-appropriate use (pragmatics). •In order to guide us in constructing an approach to teaching grammar that strives to meet this definition, it would be helpful to have a frame of reference- A Three Dimensional Grammar Framework.
  5. 5. Form/ Structure Use/ Pragmatics Meaning/ Semantics Morphosyntactic and lexical patterns Phonemic/ graphemic patterns Lexical Meaning Grammatical Meaning Social Context Linguistic Discourse Context Presuppositions about Context
  6. 6. A Three Dimensional Framework Representations: •Wedges of pie- dimensions not hierarchically arranged as many traditional characterizations of linguistic strata depict. • Arrows- connecting arrows from one wedge of the pie with another illustrate the interconnectedness of the three dimensions; thus change in one wedge will have repercussions for the other two.
  7. 7. How is it formed? When/ why is it used? What does it mean? A teacher of grammar might begin by asking the questions posed in the three wedges (for the sake of simplicity, labeled form, meaning and use) for any given grammar point.
  8. 8. s’ vs. ‘s /z/ /s/ /əz / ‘s vs Possessive determiner ‘s vs of the ‘s vs noun compound Possession Description amount Relationship Part/ whole Origin/ agent
  9. 9. Form of Possessive s’ vs. ‘s /z/ /s/ / z /ə This way of forming possessives in English requires inflecting regular singular nouns and irregular plural nouns not ending in s with ‘s or by adding an apostrophe after the s’ ending of regular plural nouns and singular nouns ending in sound /s/. This form of possessive has three allomorphs: /z/, /s/, /əz/ which are phonetically conditioned; /z/ is used when it occurs after voiced consonants and vowels, /s/ following voiceless consonants, and /əz/ occurs after sibilants.
  10. 10. Meaning of Possessive Besides possession, the possessive or genitive form can indicate description (a debtor’s prison), amount (a month’s holiday), relationship (Jack’s wife), part/ whole (my brother’s hand), and origin/ agent (Shakespeare’s tragedies). Also, although all languages have a way of signaling possession, they do not all regard the same items as possessable. For example, Spanish speakers refer to a body part using the definite article instead of a possessive form. ESL/ FSL students will have to learn the semantic scope of the possessive form in English. • Possession • Description • Amount • Relationship • Part/ whole • Origin/ agent
  11. 11. Use of Possessive ‘s vs Possessive determiner ‘s vs of the ‘s vs noun compound Filling in this wedge requires that we ask when the ‘s used to express possession as opposed to other structures that can be used to convey this same meaning. For example, possession in English can be expressed in other ways – with possessive determiner (e.g. his, her, and their) or with the periphrastic of the form (e.g. the legs of the table)
  12. 12. THE DIMENSIONS FRAMEWORK The framework does however, help to organize the facts. Furthermore by doing this, teachers can more easily identify where the learning challenge (s) will lie for their students. Identifying the challenging dimension(s) is a key step which should be taken prior to any pedagogical treatment.
  13. 13. THE CHALLENGE •All three dimensions have to be mastered by the learner (although not necessarily consciously) •Important information by recognizing where students need to be reinforced. •It is not only the form of the structures what creates conflict in students and the most
  14. 14. As teachers, we do hope to have students able to gramatical structures accurately, meaningfully and appropriately. In other words, grammar teaching is not much knowledge transmission as it is skill development. Thinking of grammar as a skill to be mastered, rather than a set of rules to be memorized, we will be helping ESL/ EFL students go a long way toward the goal of being able to accurately convey meaning in the manner they deem appropriate. (Larsen-Freeman, 1997; 2001) “GRAMMARING”
  15. 15. THE LEARNING PROCESSInsights from (SLA) reasearch on how students naturally develop their ability to interpret and produce grammatical utterances: 1)Learners do not learn structures one at a time. It is a matter of accumulating structural entities (Ruthrford 1987) 2)Even when learners appear to have mastered a particular structure , it is not uncommon to find backsliding occurring with the introduction of the new forms to learner’s interlanguage. 3)Second language learners rely on the knowledge and the experience they have. 4)Different learning process are responsible for different aspects of language. (Gagne and Medsker 1996) *Being aware of the different language processes contributed to SLA suggests a need for teaching process to respect differences.
  16. 16. WHAT DOES TEACHING GRAMMAR MEAN? “It means enabling language students to use linguistic forms accurately, meaningfully, and appropriately”
  17. 17. THE TEACHING PROCESS / APPROACHES • In keeping with language form approaches, traditional grammar teaching has employed a structural syllabus and lessons composed of three phases or the PPP Approach: Presentation, Practice, Production (Communication) • These days, most teachers embrace a more communicatively approach, communicative activity such as Task or Content Based Approach
  18. 18. THE TEACHING PROCESS / APPROACHES • The grammar that is taught is not scheduled in advance as it is with structural syllabus/ PPP approach, but rather supports students in their completion of communicative task or their making sense of particular area. • In addition, or alternately, teachers respond to grammar errors that students commit when engaged in communication. • As such, it reverses the normal sequence (Skehan 1998b) putting communication first rather than selecting and presenting a grammar structure in advance of its use in context.
  19. 19. APPROACHES ON HOW TO ADDRESS GRAMMARThe bringing to students’ attention, or promoting the “noticing” of some feature of gramatical structure. Recasting/ Reformulate Example (Error on form, teacher recast the student’s production accurately) Student: This is Juan notebook. Teacher: Oh. This is Juan’s notebook. (perceiving the error to be the form of the possessive)
  20. 20. APPROACHES ON HOW TO ADDRESS GRAMMAR • Recasting/ Reformulate Example (Error on meaning, teacher recast what the student has said in a meaningful way) Student: I need to look into the word in the dictionary. Teacher: You need to look up the Word in the dictionary. (perceiving the phrasal verb ‘look up’ to be better form for what the student means to say)
  21. 21. APPROACHES ON HOW TO ADDRESS GRAMMAR • Recasting/ Reformulate Example (Error on use, the teacher would recast what the student has said in a more appropriate manner) Student: I arise at six in the morning. Teacher: OK. You get up at six in the morning. (perceiving that phrasal verb would be more appropriate to convey the student’s intended meaning)
  22. 22. APPROACHES ON HOW TO ADDRESS GRAMMAR • Enhancing Input or Input Flooding (Sharwood Smith, 1993) Might be an especially effective way in to focus students’ attention on grammar structures that operate at the discourse level of language, such as articles or verb tenses. By boldfacing all the normally insalient articles in a given passage, for instance, the students’ attention could be drawn to them. Even simply choosing texts in which a particular structure or structural contrast is especially frequent would enhance its saliency and thus might promote noticing , a practice sometimes called input flooding.
  23. 23. APPROACHES ON HOW TO ADDRESS GRAMMAR• Consciousness-raising Task (Fotos and Ellis, 1991) The students’ job is to induce a grammatical generalization from the data they have been given. Example: They gave a gold watch to him. They gave him a gold watch. *Indirect object alternation can and cannot be successfully applied. It is difficult in English and therefore is an ideal candidate for this sort of explicit rule articulation.
  24. 24. APPROACHES ON HOW TO ADDRESS GRAMMAR • Consciousness-raising Task (Fotos and Ellis, 1991) Caroll and Swain (1993) suggests that when the rules are not clear-cut, detailed instruction with explicit metalinguistic feedback may be the most helpful response to student errors
  25. 25. APPROACHES ON HOW TO ADDRESS GRAMMAR • The Garden Path Strategy (Tomasello and Herron, 1988-89) This means giving students information about structure without giving them the full picture , thus making it seem easier than it is. (leading them down the garden path) Example: past tense is formed with –ed, this would be leading to students down to the garden path as there are many irregular verbs in English where this rule will not work to produce past tense.
  26. 26. APPROACHES ON HOW TO ADDRESS GRAMMAR • Input Processing (Van Patten, 1996) Rather than working on a rule learning and rule application, input processing activities push learners to attend to properties of language during activities where the structure is being used meaningfully. For instance, when students are asked to carry out demands that teacher issue, they are working on matching the imperative form to its use in a meaningful way.
  27. 27. OUTPUT PRODUCTIO N Swain (1985) It pushes students to move beyond semantic processing to syntactic processing. COMMUNICATIVE TASK The added value: Using the communicative task to promote noticing is that the students are encouraged to use the target structures, thereby generating “output” that attracts feedback from teacher or another student.
  28. 28. OUTPUT PRODUCTION • Hypothesis -Testing Process When students attempt to produce structures they get to test their hypotheses on how structure is formed or what it means or when it is used. Following these attempts they can receive feedback on their hypotheses and modify them as necessary.
  29. 29. OUTPUT PRODUCTION • Collaborative Dialogue (Donato, 1994) Learners can provide support for each other, spurred development of learners’ interlanguage. (Swain and Lapkin, 1998) Corroborates the value of an interactive dialoguae as both a cognitive tool and a means of communication which can promote gramatical development
  30. 30. OUTPUT PRODUCTION • ‘Grammaring’ e.g. Helping students be able to use gramar skillfully, a goal that rrequires significant practice. • Meaningless mechanical drilling no longer useful • Students not engaged: Inert Knowledge • Motivation can be enhanced if we give students meaningful contexts. • From declarative to procedural knowledge: meaningful practice
  31. 31. EXAMPLES OF OUTPUT ACTIVITIES REINFORCING FORM • Twenty Questions • Game on Possessives • Information-Gap Activities • Sentence Unscrambling
  32. 32. EXAMPLES OF OUTPUT ACTIVITIES REINFORCING MEANING • Realia and pictures (Four Pics One Word) • TPR Activities • Concentration Games • Operations
  33. 33. EXAMPLES OF OUTPUT ACTIVITIES REINFORCING USE •Role plays •Dilemmas
  34. 34. Avoid drilling. 20 Questions. Role playing. Simulation. Activities involving flashcards or pictures.
  35. 35. THE IMPORTANCE OF FEEDBACK •Zero Teacher Intervention •Collecting Mistakes •Classifying errors according to the Pie Chart
  36. 36. VIDEO PRESENTATIONS • Teaching Grammar Communicatively • Teaching Grammar In Action
  37. 37. To Grammar Instruction This approach is designed to help learners develop both fluency and accuracy
  38. 38. Cognitive Approach Is cross-disciplinary, with contributions from psychology, philosophy, psycholinguistics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, and cognitive anthropology, but the shared focus of research is the working of the mind.
  39. 39. The Need for Cognitive Approach The usefulness of cognitive approach to grammar instruction in ESL/ EFL becomes clear when we consider the problems with purely communicative approaches. These tend to be based on theories which distinguish between language acquisition- an unconscious process similar to the way children learn their first language- and language learning, or formal instruction on rules, forms, and vocabulary.
  40. 40. HOM E
  41. 41. VACATION
  42. 42. TRAVEL
  43. 43. Teaching VocabularyTeaching Vocabulary EXPLICIT LEARNING IMPLICIT LEARNING Issues on Effective Vocabulary Learning:
  44. 44. Explicit Vocabulary Learning • Students engage in activities that focus attention on vocabulary. • Sokmen (1997) highlights several key principles of explicit learning that can help guide teachers in deciding basic questions of what to teach and how to teach. • This principles include the goal of building a large recognition vocabulary, integrating new words with old, providing a number of encounters with word, promoting a deep variety techniques, and encouraging independent learning strategies.
  45. 45. Implicit Vocabulary Learning • Incidental Vocabulary Learning that occurs when the mind is focused elsewhere , such as on understanding a text or using language for communicative purposes.
  46. 46. What to Teach? • Researchers advocate that learners should initially be taught a large productive vocabulary of at least 2,000 high frequency word. • Meara (1995), argues earlier against vocabulary control approaches in which students wre taught only a basic vocabulary of several hundred words. And read restricted sorts of text such as language textbooks and graded readers. According to him students should very large vocabulary first to acquire a language.
  47. 47. Teaching Techniques and Activities • Learning words in word association lists • Focusing on highlighted words on text • Playing Vocabulary games • Computer programs that include sounds of the words as well as illustrative pictures provide opportunity for practice with a variety of contexts, both written and spoken • Semantic Mapping helps bring consciousness relationships among words in text and helps deepen understanding by creating associative networks for words.
  48. 48. Vocabulary Learning Strategies • Guessing Word Meaning from Context This strategy is a key vocabulary learning skill for dealing with low frequency vocabulary, particularly in reading authentic texts. • Mnemonic Devices (Key Method) Helps to link a word form and its meaning and to consolidate this linkage memory • Vocabulary notebook A memory aid in independent learning. e.g. Keeping a tally on frequency of new words seen and heard
  49. 49. Vocabulary Learning Strategies • Guessing Word Meaning from Context This strategy is a key vocabulary learning skill for dealing with low frequency vocabulary, particularly in reading authentic texts. • Mnemonic Devices (Key Method) Helps to link a word form and its meaning and to consolidate this linkage memory • Vocabulary notebook A memory aid in independent learning. e.g. Keeping a tally on frequency of new words seen and heard
  50. 50. COLLOCATIONS Patterns consists of pairs or groups of words that co-occur with very high frequency and are important in vocabulary learning. “the meaning of the word has a great deal to do with the words with which is commonly associates” (Nattinger, 1988) Example: “spoiled” butter as rancid butter “spoiled” milk as sour milk *but not as “rancid milk” or “sour butter”
  51. 51. Gap-Filling Activity job work labor occupation position task employment 1. That job requires hard physical ________. 2. In today’s _________ market, computer skills are important. 3. I’ll meet you for dinner after ______ today. 4. You need to concentrate on the _______ at hand. 5. What line of ________ are you in?
  52. 52. IDIOMS • Idioms are multiword units that are completely fixed. • Distinguished as having a unitary meaning that cannot be derived from the meanings of the component parts. Example: to shed a crocodile tear (to be in sincere) to have a cold feet (to lack courage) to tighten one’s belt (to be econimica)
  53. 53. • How to Teach Vocabulary • Tips and Steps in Teaching Vocabulary • 4 Pics 1 Word Template
  54. 54. CONCLUSION: Lexical competence is a central part of communicative competence, and teaching vocabulary a central part of teaching language. While some questions remain concerning how to teach and what to teach, considerable progress has been made concerning the issues of explicit versus implicit learning, which strategies to teach, and which and how many lexical items to include in ini.tial instruction
  55. 55. Reference: CELCE-MURCIA, Marianne. TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE. 3RD Edition. 2006 by Heinle and Heinle, Thompson Learning Asia

×