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Constantly Under Construction STW Thesaurus for Economics Linked Data Maintenance
Joachim Neubert
ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
DCMI Libraries Community
DC-2013, Lisbon, Portugal
05.09.2013

ZBW is member of the Leibniz Association
STW Thesaurus for Economics




Created in the 1990s, currently maintained and enhanced by ZBW
More than 6,000 descriptors in English and German
Fine-meshed network of concepts:
 More than 16,000 broader/narrower relations
 11,000 related concepts
 Additional access path through a term classification with more
than 500 entries

Page 2
STW versions and changes against the previous
8.04 – 29.2.2009
 223 new descriptors (skos:Concept with skos:prefLabel de/en)
 4 deleted descriptors
 618 new non-descriptors (skos:altLabel)

8.06 – 22.4.2010
 58 new descriptors
 57 deleted descriptors
 491 new non-descriptors

8.08 – 30.6.2011
 105 new descriptors
 141 deleted descriptors
 1490 new non-descriptors

8.10 – 21.3.2012
(Counts stem from the legacy maintenance system and may not be as accurate as they seem, but should give an idea about
the change frequency)

Page 3
Other kinds of changes
Other kinds of changes may be highly relevant especially for the
creation and evolvement of mappings from or to other vocabularies:
 Changes of the preferred label
„Partnership“ -> „Business partnership“
 Changes of alternative labels
„Bankkonkurs“ -> „Bankenkonkurs“
 Changes of relations (broader/narrower/related)
 Labels attached to new concepts
„Industrial cluster “ from „Geographic concentration “ (deleted) to
„Regional Cluster “
 Splits and merges of concepts

Page 4
How do we currently handle this?

Page 5
RDF statements about a particular version

<http://zbw.eu/stw>
a skos:ConceptScheme, void:Dataset ;
dcterms:issued "2012-03-21"^^xsd:date ;
owl:versionInfo "8.10" ;
...

Page 6
STW URI versioning concept

Stable URIs for skos:ConceptScheme und skos:Concept
 http://zbw.eu/stw
 http://zbw.eu/stw/descriptor/19664-4

303 redirect to versioned URLs (RDFa files, when required with language
extension)
 http://zbw.eu/stw/versions/latest/about
 http://zbw.eu/stw/versions/latest/descriptor/19664-4/about

Archived RDFa/rdf/ttl files available (with hint to the latest version)
 http://zbw.eu/stw/versions/8.06/about
 http://zbw.eu/stw/versions/8.06/descriptor/19664-4/about

Search functions and web services always work on the latest version

Page 7
Pragmatic solution – overview page

Changes are traceable
only intellectually (but
at all)

Page 8
Detailed changelog
From legacy maintance system (simple text file, in German):

Page 9
Deleted descriptors/concepts
URI is still defined – shown on a RDFa page like this:

<http://zbw.eu/stw/descriptor/12257-3>
a skos:Concept, zbwext:Descriptor ;
skos:inScheme <http://zbw.eu/stw> ;
rdfs:label "Real estate loan"@en, "Realkredit"@de ;
owl:deprecated true ;
dcterms:isReplacedBy <http://zbw.eu/stw/descriptor/13775-4> ;
skos:historyNote "Deprecated (used at last in version
8.04)"@en .

Page 10
How to handle this better?

What users want to know when we publish a new version:
 What‘s new?
 What has changed?

Page 11
Rough plan for a SKOS history

1) Create a raw diff of sorted n-triple files. (This gives you thousands
and thousends of differences, even excluding bnodes.)
2) Group changes for each concept.
3) Recognize insertion and deletion of concepts as a whole
(presumably the most important changes).
4) Recognize certain types of changes (e.g., altered prefLabel, added
altLabel, changed relations).
5) Enrich the concept URIs with the preferred label (in a given
language).

Page 12
Rough plan for a SKOS history (continued)

6) Arrange everything nicely on a RDFa overview page
(additions/deletion of concepts, perhaps some of the more important
types of changes, statistics such as amount of changed/unchanged
concepts, etc.)
7) Provide a change history per concept, e.g. on a RDFa page which
can be linked from a concept page.
8) Optionally, if the terminology includes meta-structures such as a
subject classification, add aggregated information about the most
intensively changed subject areas (hot spots) to the overview page.

Page 13
URIs for versions and version deltas

URI for version, e.g.

named graphs

 http://zbw.eu/stw/version/8.04

URI for delta, e.g.
 http://zbw.eu/stw/version/8.04/delta/8.06

Each delta has a deletions and a insertions part, e.g.
 http://zbw.eu/stw/version/8.04/delta/8.06/insertions
 http://zbw.eu/stw/version/8.04/delta/8.06/deletions

Page 14
History of a SKOS concept

Implementation prototype based on version and delta files, loaded as
named graphs into a SPARQL endpoint. Example CONSTRUCT result:
<http://zbw.eu/stw/descriptor/10112-4>
skos:prefLabel "Welfare analysis"@en , "Wohlfahrtsanalyse"@de ;
:history [ :altLabelDeltion "Wohlfahrtsmessung"@de , "Wohlfahrtsmaß"@de , "Welfare measurement"@en , "Wohlstandsmaß"@de ;
:altLabelInsertion "Welfare effect"@en , "Wohlfahrtsgewinn"@de , "Wohlfahrtseffekt"@de , "Wohlfahrtsverlust"@de ;
:delta
<http://zbw.eu/stw/version/8.08/delta/8.10> ;
:prefLabelDeletion "Welfare effect"@en , "Wohlfahrtseffekt"@de ;
:prefLabelInsertion "Wohlfahrtsanalyse"@de , "Welfare analysis"@en
].

(Very preliminary implementation, currently limited to prefLabel and altLabel changes)

Page 15
Thanks

Joachim Neubert
ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
j.neubert@zbw.eu
http://zbw.eu/stw
http://zbw.eu/labs

Page 16

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Constantly Under Construction: STW Thesaurus for Economics Linked Data Maintenance

  • 1. Constantly Under Construction STW Thesaurus for Economics Linked Data Maintenance Joachim Neubert ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics DCMI Libraries Community DC-2013, Lisbon, Portugal 05.09.2013 ZBW is member of the Leibniz Association
  • 2. STW Thesaurus for Economics    Created in the 1990s, currently maintained and enhanced by ZBW More than 6,000 descriptors in English and German Fine-meshed network of concepts:  More than 16,000 broader/narrower relations  11,000 related concepts  Additional access path through a term classification with more than 500 entries Page 2
  • 3. STW versions and changes against the previous 8.04 – 29.2.2009  223 new descriptors (skos:Concept with skos:prefLabel de/en)  4 deleted descriptors  618 new non-descriptors (skos:altLabel) 8.06 – 22.4.2010  58 new descriptors  57 deleted descriptors  491 new non-descriptors 8.08 – 30.6.2011  105 new descriptors  141 deleted descriptors  1490 new non-descriptors 8.10 – 21.3.2012 (Counts stem from the legacy maintenance system and may not be as accurate as they seem, but should give an idea about the change frequency) Page 3
  • 4. Other kinds of changes Other kinds of changes may be highly relevant especially for the creation and evolvement of mappings from or to other vocabularies:  Changes of the preferred label „Partnership“ -> „Business partnership“  Changes of alternative labels „Bankkonkurs“ -> „Bankenkonkurs“  Changes of relations (broader/narrower/related)  Labels attached to new concepts „Industrial cluster “ from „Geographic concentration “ (deleted) to „Regional Cluster “  Splits and merges of concepts Page 4
  • 5. How do we currently handle this? Page 5
  • 6. RDF statements about a particular version <http://zbw.eu/stw> a skos:ConceptScheme, void:Dataset ; dcterms:issued "2012-03-21"^^xsd:date ; owl:versionInfo "8.10" ; ... Page 6
  • 7. STW URI versioning concept Stable URIs for skos:ConceptScheme und skos:Concept  http://zbw.eu/stw  http://zbw.eu/stw/descriptor/19664-4 303 redirect to versioned URLs (RDFa files, when required with language extension)  http://zbw.eu/stw/versions/latest/about  http://zbw.eu/stw/versions/latest/descriptor/19664-4/about Archived RDFa/rdf/ttl files available (with hint to the latest version)  http://zbw.eu/stw/versions/8.06/about  http://zbw.eu/stw/versions/8.06/descriptor/19664-4/about Search functions and web services always work on the latest version Page 7
  • 8. Pragmatic solution – overview page Changes are traceable only intellectually (but at all) Page 8
  • 9. Detailed changelog From legacy maintance system (simple text file, in German): Page 9
  • 10. Deleted descriptors/concepts URI is still defined – shown on a RDFa page like this: <http://zbw.eu/stw/descriptor/12257-3> a skos:Concept, zbwext:Descriptor ; skos:inScheme <http://zbw.eu/stw> ; rdfs:label "Real estate loan"@en, "Realkredit"@de ; owl:deprecated true ; dcterms:isReplacedBy <http://zbw.eu/stw/descriptor/13775-4> ; skos:historyNote "Deprecated (used at last in version 8.04)"@en . Page 10
  • 11. How to handle this better? What users want to know when we publish a new version:  What‘s new?  What has changed? Page 11
  • 12. Rough plan for a SKOS history 1) Create a raw diff of sorted n-triple files. (This gives you thousands and thousends of differences, even excluding bnodes.) 2) Group changes for each concept. 3) Recognize insertion and deletion of concepts as a whole (presumably the most important changes). 4) Recognize certain types of changes (e.g., altered prefLabel, added altLabel, changed relations). 5) Enrich the concept URIs with the preferred label (in a given language). Page 12
  • 13. Rough plan for a SKOS history (continued) 6) Arrange everything nicely on a RDFa overview page (additions/deletion of concepts, perhaps some of the more important types of changes, statistics such as amount of changed/unchanged concepts, etc.) 7) Provide a change history per concept, e.g. on a RDFa page which can be linked from a concept page. 8) Optionally, if the terminology includes meta-structures such as a subject classification, add aggregated information about the most intensively changed subject areas (hot spots) to the overview page. Page 13
  • 14. URIs for versions and version deltas URI for version, e.g. named graphs  http://zbw.eu/stw/version/8.04 URI for delta, e.g.  http://zbw.eu/stw/version/8.04/delta/8.06 Each delta has a deletions and a insertions part, e.g.  http://zbw.eu/stw/version/8.04/delta/8.06/insertions  http://zbw.eu/stw/version/8.04/delta/8.06/deletions Page 14
  • 15. History of a SKOS concept Implementation prototype based on version and delta files, loaded as named graphs into a SPARQL endpoint. Example CONSTRUCT result: <http://zbw.eu/stw/descriptor/10112-4> skos:prefLabel "Welfare analysis"@en , "Wohlfahrtsanalyse"@de ; :history [ :altLabelDeltion "Wohlfahrtsmessung"@de , "Wohlfahrtsmaß"@de , "Welfare measurement"@en , "Wohlstandsmaß"@de ; :altLabelInsertion "Welfare effect"@en , "Wohlfahrtsgewinn"@de , "Wohlfahrtseffekt"@de , "Wohlfahrtsverlust"@de ; :delta <http://zbw.eu/stw/version/8.08/delta/8.10> ; :prefLabelDeletion "Welfare effect"@en , "Wohlfahrtseffekt"@de ; :prefLabelInsertion "Wohlfahrtsanalyse"@de , "Welfare analysis"@en ]. (Very preliminary implementation, currently limited to prefLabel and altLabel changes) Page 15
  • 16. Thanks Joachim Neubert ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics j.neubert@zbw.eu http://zbw.eu/stw http://zbw.eu/labs Page 16