Sentence structure simple and compound sentences

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Sentence structure simple and compound sentences

  1. 1. Sentence Structure Simple and Compound Sentences
  2. 2. The Sentence Sentence—a group of words that works together to form a complete thought and contains a subject and a verb. Subject—tells you who/what the sentence is about Verb—expresses the action or state of being of the subject.
  3. 3. The Sentence
  4. 4. The Sentence What is it called when a sentence does not have either a subject or a verb?
  5. 5. Fragments If you said “fragment,” you are correct! Fragments don’t express a complete thought, so it’s best to avoid them when you write academic essays.
  6. 6. Subjects In order to distinguish the subject of your sentence, ask "Who?" or "What?" in front of the verb. Example Question for the subject Answer The theory stated by the German astronauts amazed the government. What amazed the government? The acid spilled in the laboratory caused a delay in the investigation. What caused a delay in the acid spilled in the the investigation? laboratory the theory stated by the German astronauts The assistant manager at the Who filed a lawsuit store filed a lawsuit against against the company the assistant manager the company for age for age discrimination? discrimination.
  7. 7. Subjects Your turn. Find the subject in each of these sentences: The hawk soars. The widows weep. My daughter is a wrestler. The wrestlers are tired. He is a good friend. We like watching documentaries.
  8. 8. Subjects Your turn. Find the subject in each of these sentences: The hawk soars. The widows weep. My daughter is a wrestler. The wrestlers are tired. He is a good friend. We like watching documentaries.
  9. 9. Subjects Sometimes finding the subject isn’t that simple. -ing words as subjects Jumping on the trampoline can be dangerous. Watching too much TV can have negative effects on your health. Traveling is a good way to learn. Singing is not my forte.
  10. 10. Subjects Compound Subjects—a sentence that has more than one subject. Her shoes and ankles were covered with mud. Cars, buses, and trucks ride on the street. At the local Dairy Queen, Jenny and Marsha gasped at the sight of pickle slices on their banana splits. At the local Dairy Queen, Officer Jenkins, Mrs. Lowery, the Williams twins, Harold, Billy Jo, Jenny, and Marsha gasped at the sight of pickle slices on their banana splits.
  11. 11. Subject What happens when the subject isn’t there, but there is a complete thought?  This happens!  These are usually commands, second person. • Raise your hand. • Ring the doorbell. • Have a seat.  “You” is the subject of each of these sentences, but it is not stated directly. It is implied.
  12. 12. Verbs Action verbs—describes an action that the subject performs. In the library and at church, Michele giggles inappropriately. Because of the spicy Jamaican pepper, David reached for his glass of iced tea. The alarm clock buzzed like an angry bumblebee. The coffee maker gurgled on the kitchen counter.
  13. 13. Verbs Linking verbs—connects a subject with words that describe it, and it does not show action.  be [am, is, are, was, were, has been, are being, might have been, etc.]  become  seem  Keila is a shopaholic.  During the afternoon, my cats are content to nap on the couch.  A ten-item quiz seems impossibly long after a night of no studying.
  14. 14. Verbs Compound verbs—when a subject performs more than one action, it creates a compound verb. One action: Before mixing the ingredients for his world-famous cookies, Bobby swatted a fly buzzing around the kitchen and crushed a cockroach scurrying across the floor. Multiple actions: Before mixing the ingredients for his world-famous cookies, Bobby swatted a fly buzzing around the kitchen, crushed a cockroach scurrying across the floor, shooed the cat off the counter, picked his nose, scratched his armpit, licked his fingers, and sneezed.
  15. 15. Verbs A verb isn’t always just one word. Depending on what tense the verb is, it could be many words acting together as the verb for the sentence. Helping verbs—words that are combined with the main verb to indicate tense, negative structure, or question structure.  Simple Present: They walk  Present Perfect: They have walked  Simple Past: They walked  Past Perfect: They had walked  Future: They will walk  Future Perfect: They will have walked
  16. 16. Sentence Types Now that you have a strong foundation in the basic parts of a sentence, let’s build on what you’ve learned by talking about different sentence types.
  17. 17. Simple Sentence Simple sentence—expresses only one complete thought. It can have multiple subjects It can have multiple verbs Examples • Laura can’t hear the alarm clock. • Her dog wakes her.
  18. 18. Compound Sentence Compound sentence—a sentence that is made up of two complete thoughts. Each complete thought is underlined below. Laura can’t hear the alarm clock, and her dog wakes her. Laura can’t hear the alarm clock; her dog wakes her. Laura can’t hear the alarm clock; however, her dog wakes her.
  19. 19. Compound Sentence The complete thoughts in compound sentences can be joined by a conjunction or a semicolon.
  20. 20. Compound Sentence: Using Conjunctions Conjunctions = FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so When there is a complete thought on each side of the conjunction, use a comma before the conjunction.  Complete thought, conjunction complete thought.
  21. 21. Compound Sentence: Using Semicolons There must be a complete thought on each side of the semicolon in order to use this punctuation correctly. I am going home; I intend to stay there. It rained heavily during the afternoon; we managed to have our picnic anyway. They couldn't make it to the summit and back before dark; they decided to camp for the night.
  22. 22. You Decide Are these simple or compound sentences? • Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon, and they left on the bus before I arrived. • Mary and Samantha took the bus. • Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon and left on the bus before I arrived. • I looked for Mary and Samantha at the bus station, but they arrived at the station before noon and left on the bus before I arrived. • Mary and Samantha left on the bus before I arrived, so I did not see them at the bus station.
  23. 23. Answers • Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon, and they left on the bus before I arrived. [compound] • Mary and Samantha took the bus. [simple] • Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon and left on the bus before I arrived. [simple— there’s not a complete thought after “and”] • I looked for Mary and Samantha at the bus station, but they arrived at the station before noon and left on the bus before I arrived. [compound] • Mary and Samantha left on the bus before I arrived, so I did not see them at the bus station. [compound]
  24. 24. Different Types of Sentences: Why Should I Care? When you use varying sentence structures, your writing flows more smoothly, which makes it more interesting to read. What do you think it would be like to read an essay written completely in simple sentences? What do you think it would be like to read a sentence of all compound sentences?

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