 Plagiarism—when a writer represents ideas
from a source as his or her own ideas, either
intentionally or unintentionally...
 Consider these scenarios (all plagiarism):
I sometimes copy a friend’s work.
I sometimes copy and paste text from an ele...
 Tempting
 Easy and fast
 Cutting & pasting
 Poor note taking
 Improper quotations
 Poor paraphrasing or summarizing...
Intentional
• Buying an essay on the
internet and putting your
name on it
• Putting your name on an
essay someone wrote fo...
 Using another writer’s exact words without using
quotation marks around those words
 Paraphrasing or quoting a writer’s...
 Reasons to avoid plagiarism
 Unethical
 Lost learning opportunity
 Decreases your credibility as a writer
 Can resul...
 Always give credit when using information from a
source
 When taking notes, write exact words from the source
in quotat...
 Must be identical to the original (using a
narrow segment of the source)
 Must be inside quotation marks (to signal
tha...
 Paraphrasing
 Puts a passage from source material in your own words
 Must also be attributed to the author
 Usually s...
 Provide support for claims or add credibility
 Give examples of several points of view on a
subject
 Highlight a parti...
In order to paraphrase properly, the passage needs to be
changed significantly from the original source:
1. Change the wor...
 Read your sources multiple times until you
understand them fully
 Don’t look at your source while you are
trying to sum...
ORIGINAL:
The rise of industry, the growth of
cities, and the expansion of the
population were the three great
development...
 Ineffective
 Why?
 The writer only changed around a few
words and phrases or changed the order
of the original’s sente...
ORIGINAL:
The rise of industry, the growth of cities,
and the expansion of the population
were the three great development...
Effective
 Why?
 The writer records the information in the
original passage accurately.
 The writer gives credit for th...
 Quotation—the exact words from a source,
indicated by surrounding those words with
double quotation marks
 Written EXAC...
 Weak integration of a quote:
 Minorities may feel pressured to
alter a way of life to which they have
become accustomed...
 Strong integration of a quote:
 Minorities may feel pressured to alter a
way of life to which they have become
accustom...
 Weak integration of a quote:
 The administration at the University of Missouri
believes that with a constant recruitmen...
 Strong integration of a quote:
 The administration at the University of
Missouri believes that with a constant
recruitm...
 If you change something in a quote, indicate it
by using brackets [ ]
 "He [William Dean Howells] was 'fierce to
shut o...
 You can leave words out of a quote, but you have to show it
 Use the ellipsis ( . . . ), three spaced periods, to show
...
 If you leave more than a whole sentence
out of a direct quote, use an ellipsis with
four spaced periods (. . . .)
 Quotes within a quote
 Double quotation marks always go on the outside
 If you need to use quotation marks within the ...
 Use the name of an author and a comment on his/her
credentials
 Do this the first time you use information from that
so...
Model Signal Phrases:
“Researchers Long and McKinzie
claim…”
“As Paul Rudnick notes…”
“Melinda Stuart, mother of a
child k...
 Direct quotes should support your claims, not take
the place of your claims
 Always follow a direct quote with your own...
Avoiding plagiarism & using sources
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Avoiding plagiarism & using sources

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Avoiding plagiarism & using sources

  1. 1.  Plagiarism—when a writer represents ideas from a source as his or her own ideas, either intentionally or unintentionally.  Rooted in copyright and intellectual property laws.
  2. 2.  Consider these scenarios (all plagiarism): I sometimes copy a friend’s work. I sometimes copy and paste text from an electronic source without giving credit to the author. I sometimes use images, clip art, videos, etc. from websites without giving credit to the creator. I use information from a source, but I change a few words.
  3. 3.  Tempting  Easy and fast  Cutting & pasting  Poor note taking  Improper quotations  Poor paraphrasing or summarizing  Incorrect citations
  4. 4. Intentional • Buying an essay on the internet and putting your name on it • Putting your name on an essay someone wrote for you • Copying and pasting information into your essay without documenting it • Results in more serious consequences Unintentional • Poor paraphrasing • Incorrect documentation • Quoting excessively • Can result in less severe consequences, but they can vary depending on the severity
  5. 5.  Using another writer’s exact words without using quotation marks around those words  Paraphrasing or quoting a writer’s words without citing them*  Stating another person’s ideas without citing the source* *By citing the source, you should cite it BOTH in the works cited page as well as in the essay itself (with in-text citations)
  6. 6.  Reasons to avoid plagiarism  Unethical  Lost learning opportunity  Decreases your credibility as a writer  Can result in serious consequences:  Lower grade on the assignment (maybe even a zero)  Lower grade in the class  It might even go on your permanent record, depending on the severity
  7. 7.  Always give credit when using information from a source  When taking notes, write exact words from the source in quotation marks  If you’re using direct quotes, be sure to use quotation marks around the exact words from the source and include a citation at the end of the sentence  Paraphrase and summarize effectively  Check your passages against the original source  When in doubt, cite!
  8. 8.  Must be identical to the original (using a narrow segment of the source)  Must be inside quotation marks (to signal that the words are not your own)  Must be attributed to the author  Limit your use of quotations  No more than 25% of the essay should be direct quotations.  Paraphrase as much as you can.
  9. 9.  Paraphrasing  Puts a passage from source material in your own words  Must also be attributed to the author  Usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly  Summarizing  Puts the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s)  Must attribute summarized ideas to the author  Significantly shorter than the original  Takes a broad overview of the source material
  10. 10.  Provide support for claims or add credibility  Give examples of several points of view on a subject  Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original  Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own  Expand the breadth or depth of your writing
  11. 11. In order to paraphrase properly, the passage needs to be changed significantly from the original source: 1. Change the words from the original  More than a couple of words need to change 2. Change the order of the words from the original 3. Change the sentence structure from the original  It should be written in your own voice
  12. 12.  Read your sources multiple times until you understand them fully  Don’t look at your source while you are trying to summarize or paraphrase  After you finish writing your summary or paraphrase, go back and look at the source and determine if what you have written is too close to the original
  13. 13. ORIGINAL: The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide of immigrants. With industry came urbanization the growth of large cities (like Fall River, Massachusetts, where the Bordens lived) which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade. PASSAGE IN ESSAY: The increase of industry, the growth of cities, and the explosion of the population were three large factors of nineteenth century America. As steam-driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the country, they changed farm hands into factory workers and provided jobs for the large wave of immigrants. With industry came the growth of large cities like Fall River where the Bordens lived which turned into centers of commerce and trade as well as production.
  14. 14.  Ineffective  Why?  The writer only changed around a few words and phrases or changed the order of the original’s sentences  The writer failed to cite a source for any of the ideas or facts  This is an example of plagiarism.
  15. 15. ORIGINAL: The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide of immigrants. With industry came urbanization the growth of large cities (like Fall River, Massachusetts, where the Bordens lived) which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade. PASSAGE IN ESSAY: Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of northeastern industrial cities of the nineteenth century. As steam-powered production shifted labor from agriculture to manufacturing, the demand for workers "transformed farm hands into industrial laborers," and created jobs for immigrants. In turn, growing populations increased the size of urban areas. Fall River was one of these hubs "which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade" (Williams 1).
  16. 16. Effective  Why?  The writer records the information in the original passage accurately.  The writer gives credit for the ideas in this passage.  The writer indicated which part is taken directly from the source by putting the passage in quotation marks and citing the page number.
  17. 17.  Quotation—the exact words from a source, indicated by surrounding those words with double quotation marks  Written EXACTLY as it appears in the source  Always surrounded by double quotation marks  Should be introduced and/or weaved into your own sentence, not just “dropped” into the essay (also called a “dumped quote”)  ALWAYS cite at the end of the sentence with a direct quote
  18. 18.  Weak integration of a quote:  Minorities may feel pressured to alter a way of life to which they have become accustomed. "Moreover, the behavior, lifestyle, and values of minority students are likely to be substantially different from those of whites" (Jones and Farrell 212).
  19. 19.  Strong integration of a quote:  Minorities may feel pressured to alter a way of life to which they have become accustomed because their "behavior, lifestyle, and values . . . are likely to be substantially different from those of whites" (Jones and Farrell 212).
  20. 20.  Weak integration of a quote:  The administration at the University of Missouri believes that with a constant recruitment of minority students over the next couple of years, the ratio of minorities to white students will become much more equal. "All students grow by meeting people unlike themselves" (Brown A1). The administration at the University of Missouri hopes that this is true for its university.
  21. 21.  Strong integration of a quote:  The administration at the University of Missouri believes that with a constant recruitment of minority students over the next couple of years, the ratio of minorities to white students will become more equal, thereby allowing "students [to] grow by meeting people unlike themselves" (Brown A1).
  22. 22.  If you change something in a quote, indicate it by using brackets [ ]  "He [William Dean Howells] was 'fierce to shut out' of his study the voices and faces of his family in 'pursuit of the end' which he 'sought gropingly, blindly and with very little hope but with an intense ambition, and a courage that gave way under no burden, before no obstacles'" (Kirk and Kirk 16).
  23. 23.  You can leave words out of a quote, but you have to show it  Use the ellipsis ( . . . ), three spaced periods, to show deleted portions of a quote  You only use this if you leave out words in the MIDDLE of a quote  You don’t need it at the beginning or end of a quote Example Original : “Human improvement is a fact of life, not because of the state eugenics committee, but because of consumer demand” (Kevlev 75). Quote with words left out: “Human improvement is a fact of life . . . because of consumer demand” (Kevlev 75).
  24. 24.  If you leave more than a whole sentence out of a direct quote, use an ellipsis with four spaced periods (. . . .)
  25. 25.  Quotes within a quote  Double quotation marks always go on the outside  If you need to use quotation marks within the quote, switch to single quotation marks  If you need to embed any more quotes, you just alternate: double quotes, single quotes, double quotes, single quotes, etc. Example Daryl writes, “I was happy when Mica told me she was ‘wildly delighted and plunging in with every brain cell firing’ in her new job” (36).
  26. 26.  Use the name of an author and a comment on his/her credentials  Do this the first time you use information from that source. There is no need to do this every time you paraphrase, summarize, or quote from that source.  How do your readers know that the source you have used is reliable, credible, and trustworthy, unless you tell them? Example Dr. Matthew Benjamin, head of the Department of Osteoporosis Research at the University of Ottawa, warns that the most commonly prescribed medications also have potentially dangerous side effects that have not been adequately studied (15).
  27. 27. Model Signal Phrases: “Researchers Long and McKinzie claim…” “As Paul Rudnick notes…” “Melinda Stuart, mother of a child killed by a drunk driver, points out…” “…,writes Michelle Moore, …” *Note: Limit the use of “said.” See pages 396-399 of the Prentice Hall Reference Guide for more examples. Verbs in Signal Phrases: acknowledges argues agrees asserts believes claims comments confirms contends declares denies disputes emphasizes endorses grants illustrates implies notes observes points out reasons refutes suggests writes Don’t leave your poor quotes alone at the party. Introduce them!
  28. 28.  Direct quotes should support your claims, not take the place of your claims  Always follow a direct quote with your own explanation  Add your own analysis after the quote  How does the quote connect with the other ideas in the paragraph?  What is most important for readers to notice about the quote?  How does the quote support your ideas?

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