Audience analysis


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Audience analysis

  2. 2. AUDIENCE ANALYSIS • Whenever you write— whether it’s an essay, letter, email, or speech—you will make writing decisions based on your audience. • You’ll analyze your audience by determining their values, interests, and attitudes.
  3. 3. WHY ANALYZE THE AUDIENCE? • To decide on your writing choices • To appeal to your intended audience • To address audience concerns • To persuade effectively
  4. 4. CONSIDERATIONS • Age • Skills • Language • Culture • Education • Background knowledge • Needs and interests • Gender • Income • The place of publication • The medium of publication (print, online, projecti on, speech) • The purpose of the piece
  5. 5. WHAT IS AFFECTED BY THE AUDIENCE? • Add information readers need to understand your ideas • Omit information your readers do not need • Change the level of the information you currently have (include technical terms or not?) • Change the level of your examples • Write stronger introductions or conclusions • Change sentence style and length • Add examples to help readers understand
  6. 6. COMPLICATIONS • More than one audience • Sympathetic—they care about your topic and likely agree • Uninformed—don’t know much about the topic and may not be receptive without good reason • Indifferent—may or may not know about your topic. They just don’t care. • Critical—Will criticize your ideas before they decide whether to agree or disagree with you. • Hostile—Already disagree with you and are not easily persuaded.
  7. 7. COMPLICATIONS • Wide variability in audience • Many different people will read what you write • Unknown audience • You don’t know who your audience is
  8. 8. PASSAGES Now, let’s look at some passages. • Can you tell who the intended audience is for each one? • What are the audience’s values and needs? • What writing choices were made based on the audience’s needs?
  9. 9. EXAMPLE 1 Quantitative morphology of the CNS has recently undergone major developments. In particular, several new approaches, known as design-based stereologic methods, have become available and have been successfully applied to neuromorphological research. However, much confusion and uncertainty remains about the meaning, implications, and advantages of these design-based stereologic methods. The objective of this review is to provide some clarification. It does not comprise a full description of all stereologic methods available. Rather, it is written by users for users, provides the reader with a guided tour through the relevant literature. It has been the experience of the authors that most neuroscientists potentially interested in design-based stereology need to analyze volumes of brain regions, numbers of cells (neurons, glial cells) within these brain regions, mean volumes (nuclear, perikaryal) of these cells, length densities of linear biological structures such as vessels and nerve fibers within brain regions, and the cytoarchitecture of brain regions (i.e. the spatial distribution of cells within a region of interest). Therefore, a comprehensive introduction to design-based stereologic methods for estimating these parameters is provided. It is demonstrated that results obtained with design-based stereology are representative for the entire brain region of interest, and are independent of the size, shape, spatial orientation, and spatial distribution of the cells to be investigated. Also, it is shown that bias (i.e. systematic error) in results obtained with design-based stereology can be limited to a minimum, and that it is possible to assess the variability of these results. These characteristics establish the advantages of design-based stereologic methods in quantitative neuromorphology.
  10. 10. EXAMPLE 1 • This was a passage from a professional medical journal, so it is research-based writing by a doctor written for other doctors and researchers in the medical field. • The formal the tone and medical jargon gives this away.
  11. 11. EXAMPLE 2 All of you Kelly Clarkson fans are in for a big treat. We have the latest scoop on Kelly's new Stronger tour, where she'll be playing, and who's her special guest! We love her new album Stronger and we can't wait to hear her belt out new songs and some of the old hits as well! Kelly's killer confidence and dazzling voice is sure to make for one fabulous concert. Joining Ms. Clarkson on tour, the amazingly talented (and cute!) Matt Nathanson will be her opening act. We think he is the perfect musician to join Kelly on her fierce, new tour. So, if you're like us and can't wait to see the concert, tickets will go on sale November 18 at 10:00 a.m. Get your group of friends together because this fun and fearless show is going to be something won't want to miss!
  12. 12. EXAMPLE 2 • This was a passage from a teen magazine. It is intended to entertain teenage girls. The subject matter gives away a lot, but it also uses very casual, simple language. • Did you notice the use of punctuation too? Exclamation marks were used to convey excitement and emotion, another choice the writer has made to cater directly to the audience.
  13. 13. EXAMPLE 3 Who administers Medicare plans? • Medicare Parts A and B (sometimes known as "Original Medicare") is run by the federal government. With Medicare Parts A and B, the government pays fees for your health care directly to the doctors and hospitals you visit. • Other types of Medicare plans, such as Medicare Part C (also known as Medicare Advantage), Medicare Supplement Insurance and prescription drug plans (Part D), are operated by private insurance companies that are contracted by the government. The government pays a fixed fee to your plan for your care, and your plan then pays your doctors and hospitals. What are my Medicare coverage choices? • You can choose the type of Medicare plan you want, based on what's available in your area and your coverage needs. Here's an overview of what each coverage plan offers: Medicare Part A and Part B (sometimes known as "Original Medicare") • Helps cover hospital stays, preventive care, doctor visits and other medical services. • Run by the federal government. • Can be paired with a Medicare Supplement Insurance plan to help pay your share of costs. • Can be paired with a stand-alone prescription drug plan (Medicare Part D), to help pay for medications.
  14. 14. EXAMPLE 3 • This was taken of the AARP website, so the audience is retired individuals. • The tone is neutral, and sentences are written concisely. • Notice this one has bullet points. This choice in formatting is an attempt to help simplify the information for the readers and present it in the clearest way possible. • Because these readers are older, they are likely to be concerned about their current and future health. They want to understand the information on this website so that they can make a good decision about which coverage is right for them.
  15. 15. EXAMPLE 4 (This passage is about couch surfing): A guide to making yourself at home in other people’s homes. One of the greatest things about traveling is all the great people you meet. Make a good impression and they may be reckless enough to give you their addresses. Imagine the look of shock on their faces when you actually show up. At first you’re something of a novelty, like a roaming circus performer come to entertain all of your host’s friends. Soon though, when they find that you’ve been plundering their favourite biscuits or running up a phone bill, you may find that hints about your departure progress to the point that they change the locks and throw your bags into the street. However in this cruel world of harsh economic realities the hotel, guesthouse or backpackers’ hostel may well leave your budget in tatters. Free hospitality may be the only way to sustain your travels. How then does the canny traveller leave his host always wanting more, more, more? To learn the answers read on… Just remember that you’re karmically bound to be a damn good host when you finally get your act together to rent your own roof over your head.
  16. 16. EXAMPLE 4 • This was taken off a website about couch surfing. The author is trying to convince others of the benefits of couching surfing (rather than staying in a hotel or motel) when traveling. • The audience of this passage would be people who are interesting in traveling on a budget. It’s possible the audience may be younger, maybe people in college or just out of college, since they tend to have the least disposable income, but they might be interested in exploring the world before settling down (getting a full-time job, getting married, having kids, etc.). • The language and tone is simple and conversational in an effort to reach a wide audience. • There are some unconventional spellings (they aren’t wrong; they’re just not standard American spellings). You can tell this writer is well traveled and may not be from the U.S. The author may be using these spellings to appeal to audience members in other countries.
  17. 17. CONNECTIONS • What does this reveal to you about the importance of audience analysis? • What have you learned that you can apply to your writing process? • How does the audience change with different kinds of writing (letter, email, essay, novel, newspaper article, etc.)?
  18. 18. REMEMBER • Readers are generally interested in topics that relate to their needs and their lives. • As a writer, you have to find a way to make that connection with your readers.
  19. 19. FINAL THOUGHTS • Finally, think about the audience for your last two writing projects. • Who is the audience for the Persuasive Essay? What are their characteristics? • Who is the audience for your Letter to the Editor? What are their characteristics? • How do these audiences differ? • What adjustments will you need to make to your tone, language use, word choice, etc. due to this shift in audience?