How stem cells help
Javier M. Zavala
• This research project is about how we can eradicate
cancerous cells by transplanting stem cells.
• Its important to know and investigate about this problem,
because cancer is a common disease that affects a significant
amount of the population and there is no cure for it.
• The benefits of the stem cells treatment is an area of science
that has not been fully explored, and the scientists believe
that this treatment may be the cure for some of the common
diseases now days.
• Cancers is a disease caused by the abnormal cell growth in the
body's organs and tissues.
• The type of cancer that we will treat with the stem cell
transplant is leukemia.
• Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells.
Here is an example of a bone
marrow smear showing cells
from a patient with leukemia.
• The rats, with leukemia, that will be receiving the
chemotherapy to kill the cancerous cells and the stem cells
transplant, will be the ones that are not going to have a
relapse and will regenerate the white blood cells quicker.
• I want to prove the method of the stem cells transplant and
see if the white blood cells regenerate quicker than the ones
who just used chemotherapy.
• Stem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular
organisms, that can divide (through mitosis) and differentiate
into diverse specialized cell types and can self-renew to
produce more stem cells.
• In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells:
embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell
mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in
• In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a
repair system for the body, repairing adult tissues.
• In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all
the specialized cells but also maintain the normal turnover of
regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.
• We will be working with the leukemia that affects the white
blood cells, which are the cells that protect your body from
diseases, and are produced in the bone marrow.
• Some symptoms are fatigue, fever, bleeding and bruising.
• About 40 percent of children and up to 70 percent of adults in
remission from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) will
• The stem cells transplant is a viable choice to prevent patients
of leukemia to relapse.
• Extract the stem cells before receiving the cancer treatment
(chemotherapy), then the stem cells are frozen.
• It is preferable if the transplant is autologous, which means
that the cells are from you, because there is no probability
that your immune system will reject the transplanted cells.
• Some centers clean or “purge” the stem cells before they are
given back to the patient. This is done to remove any cancer
cells that might be mixed in with them. After you get high
doses of chemo or radiation the stem cells are thawed and
given back to you.
• This experiment will be performed from two to three times to
compare the results.
• I will use two rats: control rat (does not receive the stem cells
transplant but will receive chemotherapy) and the
experimental rat (will receive the stem cells transplant and the
• The model I will use will be “in vivo”.
Expected results and future
• My expected results are that the rat that received the stem
cells transplant and the chemotherapy will be the one that
regenerates the white blood cells quicker and will have the
less probability to relapse.
• If my hypothesis is proven, we can use this method to treat
leukemia and regenerate the white blood cells quicker with
less chance of getting another disease because of low count of
white blood cells.