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Sustainable Design Principles


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Sustainable Design Principles

  1. 1. Sustainable Design Principles <br />
  2. 2. The U.S. Green Building Council<br />
  3. 3. The U.S. Green Building Council<br />
  4. 4. LEED Green Building Rating System<br />Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design<br />
  5. 5. Sustainable Sites<br />Intent:<br /> Limit expansion of developed areas, preserve ecologically productive land<br />Prevent site disturbance during construction<br />Do not develop on inappropriate sites<br />Develop in areas with existing infrastructure, not greenfields<br />Redevelop brownfield sites<br />site selection<br />
  6. 6. Sustainable Sites<br />Intent:<br /> Reduce emissions & land development impacts from vehicle use<br />Public transportation access<br />Bicycle storage & changing rooms<br />Preferred parking for fuel efficient vehicles & carpools<br />Reduce parking capacity (minimum zoning requirements)<br />transportation<br />
  7. 7. Sustainable Sites<br />Intent:<br /> Reduce pollutants & strain on infrastructure, <br />Reduce stormwater quantity, improve quality (wetlands & vegetated filtration)<br />Maximize open areas on the site<br />Protect or restore habitat<br />Eliminate heat island effect<br />Light pollution reduction<br />stormwater / development<br />
  8. 8. Water Efficiency<br />Intent:<br /> Eliminate potable water use for irrigation, reduce demand on infrastructure & natural resources<br />Use native vegetation<br />Capture rainwater for irrigation<br />Eliminate site irrigation systems<br />Reuse condensate water from HVAC systems<br />landscaping<br />
  9. 9. Water Efficiency<br />Intent:<br /> Eliminate potable water demand for conveying wastewater<br />Treat wastewater on-site<br />Use stormwater/graywater for sewage conveyance<br />Use high efficiency/dry fixtures<br />Reduce demand on infrastructure<br />wastewater<br />
  10. 10. Water Efficiency<br />Intent:<br /> Conserve water – it is a natural resource<br />Standard:<br /> Energy Policy Act of 2005<br />Use high efficiency/dry fixtures<br />Recycle graywater<br />Dual flush toilets/low flow shower heads<br />reduce water consumption<br />
  11. 11. Energy & Atmosphere<br />Intent:<br /> Many systems are designed correctly, but installed or operated improperly<br />A quality-oriented process for achieving, verifying and documenting the performance of facilities, systems and assemblies to meet defined objectives and criteria<br />Cost of fundamental commissioning +/- $1/SF<br />Owner develops project requirements<br />Designer develops basis of design<br />commissioning<br />
  12. 12. Energy & Atmosphere<br />Commissioning requirements should be incorporated into the construction documents<br />Enhanced commissioning includes systems manuals, training & a 10-month review<br />commissioning<br />
  13. 13. Energy & Atmosphere<br />optimize energy performance<br />Intent:<br /> Reduce energy consumption (reduces pollution)<br />Includes building envelope, HVAC, lighting<br />Minimum standard:<br /> ASHRAE 90.1-2007<br />Up to 19 points available for 48% energy reduction<br />Over 20,000 SF requires whole building energy simulation<br />
  14. 14. Energy & Atmosphere<br />optimize energy performance<br />Building orientation, improved building shell<br />Appropriately-sized HVAC systems<br />Energy recovery from exhaust air<br />Harvest on-site energy: solar, wind, geothermal<br />
  15. 15. Energy & Atmosphere<br />Intent:<br /> CFC’s deplete the ozone layer<br />No CFC’s permitted, phase out of old facilities<br />Reduce use of CFC’s, HCFC’s, HFC’s<br />Consider use of natural refrigerants: carbon dioxide, ammonia, propane<br />reduce refrigerants<br />
  16. 16. Energy & Atmosphere<br />Maintain equipment: prevent leakage into the atmosphere<br />Depleted ozone layer permits ultraviolet rays to penetrate the atmosphere<br />reduce refrigerants<br />
  17. 17. Energy & Atmosphere<br />Intent:<br /> Measure building energy consumption over time<br />Establish a base year of operation<br />Compare future performance to the base<br />M&V period starts after reasonable occupation & stability<br />measure & verify<br />
  18. 18. Energy & Atmosphere<br />Intent:<br /> Promote alternative energy sources<br />Purchase at least 35% of electricity from Green-e certified provider<br />Tradable renewable energy certificates (REC’s) can be used<br />green power<br />
  19. 19. Materials & Resources<br />Intent:<br /> Reduce materials extracted, reduce their transportation<br />Reduce: materials extracted<br />Reuse: existing products<br />Recycle: demolition & construction waste<br />ReStore: Habitat for Humanity<br />Regional: sustainable for the environment & the economy<br />the 3 R’s + 2<br />
  20. 20. Materials & Resources<br />Intent:<br /> Reduce waste hauled to & disposed of in landfills<br />During construction: develop waste management plan<br />Operation: provide an area within the building for storage & collection of recyclables<br />Minimum: paper, corrugated cardboard, glass, plastic & metals<br />recycling<br />
  21. 21. Materials & Resources<br />Intent:<br /> Extend life cycle of existing buildings, reduce impact of new buildings as they relate to materials & transportation<br />Reuse structure & envelope<br />Reuse interior partitions & products where possible<br />Do not reuse contaminants & hazardous materials<br />Upgrade HVAC, windows & plumbing fixtures for increased efficiency<br />building reuse<br />
  22. 22. Materials & Resources<br />Intent:<br /> Reuse building materials, reduce demand for virgin materials<br />“One man’s trash….”<br />Consider furnishings<br />Other options: posts & beams, flooring, doors, brick, cabinetry<br />materials reuse<br />
  23. 23. Materials & Resources<br />Intent:<br /> Reduce demand for virgin materials<br />Post-consumer: generated by households & businesses<br />Pre-consumer: generated by manufacturing process<br />Many suppliers list recycled content<br />Establish goals during the design phase<br />recycled content<br />
  24. 24. Materials & Resources<br />Example:<br /> Steelcase “Context” furniture<br />40% recycled content<br />8% post-consumer recycled content<br />92% recyclable<br />Context also incorporates water-based adhesives with low VOC’s<br />recycled content<br />
  25. 25. Materials & Resources<br />Intent:<br /> Reduce impact of transportation<br />Options: concrete, block, brick, wood products<br />West Virginia is in a great location (500 mile radius)<br />Creates healthier local economy<br />regional materials<br />
  26. 26. Materials & Resources<br />Intent:<br /> Reduce depletion of finite raw materials<br />10-year plant-to-harvest cycle<br />Options: bamboo, wool, linoleum, cork, wheatboard, even poplar<br />rapidly renewable materials<br />
  27. 27. Materials & Resources<br />Intent:<br /> Encourage environmentally responsible forest management<br />Current standard: Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)<br />Most West Virginia forests adhere to Sustainable Forest Initiative (SFI) standard<br />USGBC is reviewing this credit to possibly include SFI<br />certified woods<br />
  28. 28. Indoor Environmental Quality<br />Intent:<br /> Enhance indoor air quality in buildings<br />Indoor air can be 2-5 times more polluted than outdoor air<br />Prevent “sick building syndrome”<br />Standard for fresh air:<br /> ASHRAE 62.1-2007<br />Eliminate or contain tobacco smoke<br />minimum performance<br />
  29. 29. Indoor Environmental Quality<br />Intent:<br /> We all need fresh air!<br />Measure fresh air delivery<br />Increase natural ventilation… can be difficult while reducing energy use<br />Monitor air quality during construction to keep workers safe<br />Protect systems during construction<br />ventilation<br />
  30. 30. Indoor Environmental Quality<br />Intent:<br /> Reduce harmful contaminants released by many materials <br />Adhesives & sealants (GreenSeal standard)<br />Paints/stains (low VOC)<br />Flooring (Green Label, Floor Score)<br />Composite wood (no urea formaldehyde)…remember Katrina trailers<br />materials<br />
  31. 31. Indoor Environmental Quality<br />Intent:<br /> Minimize exposure to pollutants in the indoor environment<br />Entryway systems<br />Housekeeping, copy/print rooms & laundry areas: separate HVAC systems<br />MERV 13 filters<br />reduce pollutants<br />
  32. 32. Indoor Environmental Quality<br />Intent:<br /> Promote productivity, comfort & well-being of occupants<br />Controllability of lighting & HVAC systems<br />Set increased HVAC design parameters for temperature & humidity<br />Give a majority of occupants access to daylight & views<br />occupant comfort<br />
  33. 33. Innovation & Design Process<br />Intent:<br /> Be rewarded for exceptional performance above LEED requirements<br />Innovation<br />Education of the users & general public<br />Life cycle cost analysis<br />additional items…<br />
  34. 34. ZMM Case Studies<br />Lincoln County High School<br />Awarded commission in October 2000<br />Presented green design study to the Superintendent in 2002<br />Incorporated affordable green design features<br />Construction bids received in March 2004<br />Building occupied fall term 2006<br />
  35. 35. ZMM Case Studies<br />Lincoln County High School<br />Sustainable Sites:<br />Building orientation<br />Erosion and sedimentation control<br />Stormwater management<br />Stormwater filtering<br />Holding pond<br />
  36. 36. ZMM Case Studies<br />Lincoln County High School<br />Explored, but not incorporated:<br />Bicycle storage<br />Reflective roof to combat heat island effect<br />Bid add alternate was $95K – not accepted<br />Preferred parking for energy efficient vehicles<br />Could be implemented now at no cost<br />
  37. 37. ZMM Case Studies<br />Lincoln County High School<br />Water efficiency:<br />No landscape irrigation<br />Water use reduction<br />Dual flush fixtures<br />Water saving fixtures<br />Explored, but not incorporated:<br />Graywater system<br />Bid add alternate was $200K, not accepted<br />Graywater sprinkler system<br />Bid add alternate was $250K, not accepted<br />
  38. 38. ZMM Case Studies<br />Lincoln County High School<br />Energy & Atmosphere:<br />High efficiency equipment<br />Condensing boilers (95%+ efficient)<br />Chiller heat recovery<br />Fluorescent lighting, high CRI<br />CFC reduction<br />No ozone-depleting refrigerants<br />Explored, but not incorporated:<br />Full system commissioning<br />Estimated cost was $200K<br />Measurement & verification<br />Estimated cost was $20K<br />
  39. 39. ZMM Case Studies<br />Lincoln County High School<br />Materials & Resources:<br />Storage & collection of recyclables<br />Educational opportunities of recycling<br />Local & regional materials<br />Explored, but not incorporated:<br />Construction waste recycling<br />Estimated cost was $50K<br />Rapidly renewable materials<br />Wood from managed forests<br />
  40. 40. ZMM Case Studies<br />Lincoln County High School<br />Indoor environmental quality:<br />CO2 monitoring/control<br />Construction IAQ management<br />Low VOC-emitting adhesives, paints & carpets<br />HVAC digital control system<br />Daylighting<br />Building orientation<br />Automatic light level control<br />Benefits of natural light<br />Reduce energy consumption<br />
  41. 41. ZMM Case Studies<br />Lincoln County High School<br />Cost breakdown:<br />Sustainable Sites<br />Nominal<br />Water Efficiency<br />Estimated at $50K<br />Energy & Atmosphere<br />Estimated at $50K<br />Materials & Resources<br />Nominal<br />Indoor Environmental Quality<br />Estimated at $625K (daylighting & lighting controls make up $600K of this cost)<br />
  42. 42. ZMM Case Studies<br />Lincoln County High School<br />First costs vs. long-term benefits:<br />First cost of green features<br />$700,000<br />$3.23 per square foot<br />Percent of construction costs<br />$700,000<br />$31,400,000<br />= 2.25%<br />
  43. 43. ZMM Case Studies<br />Lincoln County High School<br />Long-term benefits:<br />Lower natural gas consumption<br />Lower water consumption<br />Lower electricity consumption<br />Longer life of HVAC equipment<br />Lower absenteeism<br />Higher student & teacher performance<br />Much better indoor air quality<br />Lower impact on the environment<br />
  44. 44. ZMM Case Studies<br />WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7<br />Sustainable Sites:<br />The project site has access to public transportation<br />A bicycle storage & shower area (potentially a campus-wide facility) should be developed to encourage bicycle commuting for employees who live nearby<br />Prime parking areas should be developed for employees who carpool, as well as for alternative fuel vehicles<br />The new roof will be highly reflective to reduce heat island effect<br />
  45. 45. ZMM Case Studies<br />WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7<br />Water Efficiency:<br />Low flow & dual flush fixtures will be used throughout<br />All new landscaping plans should utilize native vegetation<br />
  46. 46. ZMM Case Studies<br />WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7<br />Energy & Atmosphere:<br />New windows will help reduce solar heat gain<br />New, more efficient HVAC system will replace the perimeter induction units<br />Systems will be commissioned to ensure that all mechanical and electrical systems operate properly<br />
  47. 47. ZMM Case Studies<br />WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7<br />Materials & Resources:<br />Recycling areas are developed for each floor, and should be developed for the entire campus<br />A recycling program should be established, and all employees educated in the process<br />A construction waste management plan will be implemented<br />Included in the specifications<br />Has already included recycling of the demolished demountable partitions<br />
  48. 48. ZMM Case Studies<br />WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7<br />Materials & Resources:<br />Recycled content materials will be utilized, including drywall, steel & acoustic ceiling tiles<br />Locally & regionally produced materials will be used, including acoustic ceiling tiles, plywood,<br /> carpeting & resilient flooring<br />Cradle-to-Cradle certified furniture systems are specified<br />Raised floor with a modular, “plug & play” wiring system will eliminate future demolition waste<br />
  49. 49. ZMM Case Studies<br />WV State Office Buildings 5, 6 & 7<br />Indoor Environmental Quality:<br />Smoking will be prohibited near entryways & near air intakes<br />An indoor air quality (IAQ) management plan will be implemented during construction<br />Air quality will be measured & verified in all occupied areas to ensure that occupants are receiving enough fresh air<br />All paints, mastics & sealants will contain low VOC’s<br />Regular replacement of mechanical filters should be implemented<br />
  50. 50. Final thoughts….<br />It’s not about doing less…<br />It’s about designing better!<br />2008<br />SUSTAINABILITY<br />