Diffusion of Innovations Chapters 1-2


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Chapters 1-2 Summary from "Diffusion of Innovations" by Everett Rogers

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Diffusion of Innovations Chapters 1-2

  1. 1. <ul><li>Diffusion of Innovations by Everett Rogers, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 1: Elements of Diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is Diffusion? It is the processing which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o A special type of communication; about a new idea </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication is a process in which participants create and share information with one another in order to reach a mutual understanding. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o A convergence or divergence; a two-way street </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New ideas cause </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o Uncertainty: the degree to which a number of alternatives are perceived with respect to the occurrence of an event and their reliability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To replace uncertainty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o Information: difference in matter-energy that affects uncertainty in a situation where a choice exists among a set of alternatives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation is a kind of social change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o Social Change: the process by which alteration occurs in the structure and function of a social system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><ul><li>Four Main Elements in the Diffusion of Innovations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o The Innovation: an idea, practice, or object perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption; not necessarily new </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o Technological Innovations, Information and Uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology: a design for an instrumental action that reduces the uncertainty in the cause/effect relationship involved in achieving a desired outcome </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two Components </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware: physical object </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software: information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o Technology Clusters: one or more distinguishable elements of technology that are perceived as being close interrelated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o Perceived Attributes of innovations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relative Advantage: the degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it supercedes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compatibility: the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity: the degree to which an innovation is perceived as difficult to understand and use </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trialability: the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observability: the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o Re-invention: the degree to which an innovation is changed or modified by the user in the process of adoption and implementation </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Communication Channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o The means by which messages get from one individual to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o Mass Media Channels: all those means of transmitting messages that involved a mass medium that enable a few to reach an audience of many </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o Interpersonal Channels: involved a face to face communication between two parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o Heterophily and Diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homophily: the degree to which two or more individuals who interact are similar in certain attributes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heterophily: opposite of above; “differ” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heterophily causes problems for diffusion of innovations; most people are heterophilous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o The Innovative-Decision Process: the process in which an individual passes from first knowledge of an innovation, to a formation of an attitude toward it, to a decision to accept or reject it, to implementation and use of the new idea and to confirmation of this decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge: gained when an individual learns of the innovation’s existence ad gains some understanding of how it functions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasion: when an individual forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation: when an individual puts an innovation to use </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Re-invention is most likely to occur here </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation: when an individual seeks reinforcement on an innovative-decision that has already been made </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steps lead to </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption: decision to make full use of an innovation as the best course of action </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection: a decision not to adopt an innovation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discontinuance: a decision to reject the innovation after the adoption </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation Decision Period: length of time required to pass through the innovation decision process </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>o Innovativeness and Adopter Categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innovativeness: the degree to which an individual or other unit of adoption is relatively earlier in adopting new ideas than the other members of a system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopter Categories: the classification of members of a social system on the basis of innovativeness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Innovators </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Early Adopters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Early Majority </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Late Majority </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Laggards </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of Adoption: the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most innovations have S-shaped curves for adoption </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Social System: a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Structure and Diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structure: the patterned arrangements of the units in a system; type of information that decreases uncertainty </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Structure: the differentiated elements that can be recognized in the patterned communication flows in a system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System Effects: the influences of the structure and/or composition of a system on the behavior of the members of the system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System Norms and Diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Norms: the established behavior patterns for the members of a social system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opinion Leaders and Change Agents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opinion Leadership: the degree to which an individual is able to influence other individuals’ attitudes or overt behavior informally in a desired way with relative frequency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Network: interconnected individuals who are linked by pattern flows of information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change Agent: an individual who influences clients’ innovation decisions in a direction deemed desirable by a change agency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aide: less than fully professional change agent who intensively contacts clients to influence their innovation decisions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Types of Innovation-Decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optional: choices to adopt or reject that are made by an individual independent of the decisions of the other members of the system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collective: choices to adopt or reject that are made by consensus among the members of the system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authority: choices to adopt or reject that are made by a relatively few individuals in a system who possesses power, status, or technical expertise </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contingent: choices to adopt or reject that can be made only after a prior innovation-decision </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences of Innovations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences: the changes that occur to an individual or social system as a result of the adoption or rejection of an innovation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desirable vs. Undesirable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct vs. Indirect </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipated vs. Unanticipated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Chapter 2: A History of Diffusion Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Traditions: a series of investigations on a similar topic in chich successive studios are influenced by preceeding inquiries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots and Traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gabriel Tarde and Imitation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gerog Simmel: Strangers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British and German-Austrian Diffusionists </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Diffusionist Research Traditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invisible College: the informal network of researchers who form around an intellectual paradigm to study a common topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participant Observation: attempt by researcher to adopt the perspective of respondents by sharing their day-to-day experiences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early Sociology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rural Sociology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public Health and Medical Sociology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salience: the degree to which a news event is perceived as important by individuals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing and Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audience Segmentation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formative Research </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positioning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utilization of Communication Channels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General Sociology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other Traditions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><li>Typology of Diffusion Research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o Earliness of Knowing About Innovations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o Rate of Adoption of Different Innovations in a Social System </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o Innovativeness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o Opinion Leadership </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o Diffusion Networks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o Rate of Adoption in Different Social Systems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o Communication Channel Usage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o Consequences of Innovation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>