THE ECONOMIES OF THE NORTHAND SOUTH Economy of the NorthFishing, shipbuilding industry and navalsupplies, trade and port citiesSkilled craftsmen, shopkeepers,manufacturing (textiles, tools,metals, building materials, etc.) Economy of the SouthLarge farms/plantations, cash crops(tobacco, indigo, rice, cotton), woodproducts, small farmsSlavery
THE DEBATE OVER TARIFFS Tariffs are taxes that the government puts onimported goods (Goods brought in from othercountries). Pro: If you were a craftsman or manufacturer in theUnited States, you would like tariffs because yourproducts would not have that additional tax, thereforeyour products are cheaper than foreign products.People will be more likely to buy your products. Con: If your business is agriculture, you need to sellyour food and raw materials and buy manufacturedgoods. You may depend on foreign nations to buyyour goods and in return you buy their manufacturedgoods. Tariffs will make foreign goods moreexpensive. There may be less demand for farm goodsin foreign markets and your economy will suffer.
1828 Congress passes a controversial high protectivetariff Who do you predict will support this new law,and who will oppose this tariff?
ANALYZING THE TARIFF Take a look at the wording of the actual tariff.What type of products does this tariff affect? What part of the country makes these goods andwould benefit from this tariff? What part of the country will find this tariffharmful to its economy and why?
JOHN C. CALHOUN Vice President underAndrew Jackson Believed the Tariff of 1828was unconstitutional sinceit favored the North Insisted that states had aright to refuse to follow alaw if the state felt itviolated its rights States could declare afederal law null and void This is callednullification, a rejectionof the law He and many otherSoutherners called the1928 tariff a “Tariff ofAbominations”
Calhoun’s Justification of SCNullification What about South Carolina makes it reliant onagriculture? What would happen to the state if its goods lost theirforeign markets?
ANDREW JACKSON 7thPresident of theUnited States Believed inpreserving theUnion and foughtnullification Recommended toCongress to reducethe Tariff of 1828,so they passedanother tariff in1832
NULLIFICATION ORDINANCE South Carolina was not pleased with the newtariff either. They said it was oppressive, so thestate passed the Nullification Ordinance in1832. Declared the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null andvoid Stated they would secede if the federalgovernment used force to make them comply.
JACKSON’S RESPONSE Claimed secessionwould be consideredtreason. Defended the federalgovernment’s power toimpose tariffs andchastised SouthCarolina for violatingfederal law because astate had no right todeclare any nationallaw null and void.
Jackson’s Response Section 1 – What is Jackson’s job require him to do? Section 2 – What does Jackson say is the only way to prevent theexecution of the laws of the nation? Section 3 – What will happen to those who resist the execution ofthe laws?
FORCE BILL Jackson asked Congress togrant him the ability touse military force tocompel South Carolina toaccept and follow the law-- The Force Bill Meanwhile Henry Clayproposed another tariff inCongress that wouldreduce tariffs significantlyover the next ten years –Compromise Tariff Both of these passed in1833, and South Carolinarepealed its ordinance.
WHO WON? Both sides claimed victory Nationalists said they won because they showedthat no state is more powerful than the federalgovernment. South Carolina said that the nullification processallowed them to get what they wanted. What do you think?
BIBLIOGRAPHY Thread http://www.scripophily.com/webcart/vigs/americanthreadvig.jpg Cotton http://www.icis.com/blogs/icis-chemicals-confidential/cotton%20fields.jpg Capitalhttp://4.bp.blogspot.com/_CvDCiEFbNy8/Sp7CaHXHHyI/AAAAAAAALGQ/XDOl1mP2g2c/s400/DC+1828+Comparison+Between+Temple+of+Liberty+and+Nearby+Log+Cabins+John+Rubens+Smith+%5BWest+Front+of+the+Capitol%5D,++Prints+and+Photographs+Division+Library+of+Congress.jpg Andrew Jackson http://multimedialearningllc.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/andrew_jackson.jpg http://www.gilderlehrman.org/sites/default/files/inlinepdfs/Nullification%20Proclamation.pdf John C. Calhoun http://amhist.ist.unomaha.edu/module_files/John%20C%20Calhoun.jpg http://www.teachingushistory.org/documents/expositionandprotest.pdf South Carolina http://iz.carnegiemnh.org/crayfish/images/south_carolina.jpg Jackson standing http://www.americaslibrary.gov/assets/aa/jackson/aa_jackson_subj_e.jpg Henry Clay http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Henry_Clay.JPG "The Nullification Controversy, 1832-1833." DISCovering U.S. History. Gale Research, 1997.Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale.http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/ http://www.gilderlehrman.org/sites/default/files/inlinepdfs/Excerpts%20from%20the%20Tariff%20of%201828.pdf