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Throwing Athlete


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Throwing mechanics and associated upper extremity pathologies

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Throwing Athlete

  1. 1. The Throwing Athlete Prevention & Care of Athletic Injuries KNR 199
  2. 2. Throwing Motion <ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early cocking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late cocking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceleration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deceleration & follow through </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Wind-Up <ul><li>Establishes rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Positions segments of body to contribute to forward propulsion of ball </li></ul>
  4. 4. Early Cocking <ul><li>Shoulder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90º abduction (ABD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30º horizontal ABD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90-120º ER </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elbow 90º flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Wrist neutral </li></ul>
  5. 5. Late Cocking <ul><li>Trunk rotates forward </li></ul><ul><li>Scapula retracts </li></ul><ul><li>Shoulder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90º ABD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral horizontal ABD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>160º ER </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elbow 90º flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Wrist slightly extended </li></ul><ul><li>Lead leg rotated toward target </li></ul>
  6. 6. Acceleration <ul><li>Scapula protracts </li></ul><ul><li>Shoulder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internally rotates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontally adducts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elbow extends </li></ul><ul><li>Forearm pronates </li></ul><ul><li>Wrist flexes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Acceleration <ul><li>Occurs in 0.05 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Peak angular velocity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulder: 6000º/sec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elbow: 2300-4500º/sec </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Deceleration & Follow Through <ul><li>Shoulder continues to IR & horiz ADD </li></ul><ul><li>Elbow flexes </li></ul><ul><li>Body moves forward </li></ul>
  9. 9. Warning Signs: Upper Extremity <ul><li>Contralateral elbow is used as “sight” </li></ul><ul><li>Throwing arm trails </li></ul><ul><li>Werner et al, 2001 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Warning Signs: Lower Extremity <ul><li>Decreased torso & hip rotation ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased trunk & hip rotation strength </li></ul>
  11. 11. Throwing Athletes ROM
  12. 12. Total Arc of Motion <ul><li>Healthy throwers have 180° </li></ul>180º ER IR
  13. 13. Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit (GIRD) <ul><li>Difference in internal rotation of dominant arm compared to non-dominant arm </li></ul>
  14. 14. Humeral Retroversion <ul><li>Adaptive change of bony architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute angle in medial & posterior direction between axis of elbow joint & axis through center of humeral head </li></ul></ul>Pieper, 1998
  15. 15. Doyle & Burks, 1998
  16. 16. Soft-Tissue Adaptations <ul><li>Tight posterior IGHL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift in GH contact point </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Additional Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>