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The Flora boundary (Fig. 3) follows the limits of the arctic
ecozone in Canada and northern Alaska as defined by the
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Saarela 2014 afca poster arctic change 2014


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Saarela JM, LJ Gillespie, PC Sokoloff. The Arctic Flora of Canada and Alaska project. Arctic Change 2014, 8–12 December 2014, Ottawa, ON, Canada. [poster]

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Saarela 2014 afca poster arctic change 2014

  1. 1. The Flora boundary (Fig. 3) follows the limits of the arctic ecozone in Canada and northern Alaska as defined by the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map Team (CAVM Team 2003), with a few modifications. Western Alaska is excluded due to its closer floristic affinity to Far East Russia. Most islands within Hudson Bay (i.e., Belcher Islands and others at equal or greater latitude) — all part of Nunavut — are part of the Flora region. Two arctic-boreal regions south of the main boundary line of the Flora will be given special consideration since many Arctic species reach their southern limits here. These are the Hudson Bay coastal region (HBC) in Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec, and the Plateau du Lac Nedlouc in Northern Quebec. All arctic species (i.e., species that occur in the Flora region) will be treated and mapped for these regions; boreal species that do not occur within the main Flora boundary will not be treated. The Arctic Flora of Canada and Alaska project Jeffery M. Saarela, Lynn J. Gillespie & Paul C. Sokoloff Botany Section and Centre for Arctic Knowledge and Exploration, Research and Collections, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Canada INTRODUCTION FLORISTIC DIVERSITY REFERENCES Figure 3: Map of the region covered by the Arctic Flora of Canada and Alaska. Aiken SG, Dallwitz MJ, Consaul LL, McJannet CL, Boles RL, Argus GW, Gillett JM, Scott PJ, Elven R, LeBlanc MC, Gillespie LJ, Brysting AK, Solstad H, Harris JG. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval [CD-ROM]. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada. collections/our-research/areas-expertise/botany/flora-canadian-arctic-archipelago. Al-Shehbaz IA, Mulligan GA. 2013. New or noteworthy species of Draba from Canada and Alaska. Harvard Papers in Botany 18: 101–124. Brouillet L, Coursol F, Meades SJ, Favreau M, Anions M, Bélisle P, Desmet P. 2010+. VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada. on 2014-05-29) CAVM Team. 2003. Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map. (1:7,500,000 scale), Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Map No. 1. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska. ISBN: 0-9767525-0-6, ISBN-13: 978-0-9767525-09 Consaul LL, Gillespie LJ, Waterway MJ. 2008. A new species of alkali grass (Puccinellia, Poaceae) from the western North American Arctic. Novon 18: 16–20. Daniëls FJA, Gillespie LJ, Poulin M. 2013. Plants in: Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity, pp. 310–353 (Edited by H Meltofte). Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri. Elven R, Al-Shehbaz IA. 2008. Draba simmonsii (Brassicaceae), a new species of the D. micropetala complex from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 18: 325–329 doi: 10.3417/2007178. Elven R, Murray DF, Razzhivin VY, Yurtsev BA. 2011. Annotated Checklist of the Panarctic Flora (PAF) Vascular plants. on 2014-05-29) Gillespie LJ, Saarela JM, Sokoloff PC, Bull RD. In Review. New vascular plant records for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Harris JG. 2006. Five new subspecies of Braya (Brassicaceae) from Canada. Novon 16: 344–353. doi: 10.3417/1055- 3177(2006)16[344:FNSOBB]2.0.CO;2 Smith V, Rycroft S, Harman K, Scott B, Roberts D. 2009. Scratchpads: a data-publishing framework to build, share and manage information on the diversity of life. BMC Bioinformatics 10: S6. doi:10.1186/1471-2105-10-S14-S6 Smith V, Rycroft S, Brake I, Scott B, Baker E, Livermore L, Blagoderov V, Roberts D. 2011. Scratchpads 2.0: a Virtual Research Environment supporting scholarly collaboration, communication and data publication in biodiversity science. ZooKeys 150: 53– 70. doi:10.3897/zookeys.150.2193 Solstad H. 2009. Taxonomy and evolution of the diploid and polyploid Papaver sect. Meconella (Papaveraceae). PhD Thesis, University of Oslo, Oslo. The goal of the Arctic Flora of Canada and Alaska (AFCA) project is to produce a comprehensive flora of the arctic ecozone in Canada and northern Alaska. We aim to move the Flora beyond current standards and produce a treatment that is digital, interactive, and which takes full advantage of current (and future) web and database technologies. At its core the Flora will consist of taxon descriptions, nomenclatural data, dichotomous keys, and specimen based distribution maps. Information will be published on-line as it is generated and ready for release. By being electronic, this flora will function as a living document, able to easily take advantage of the latest taxonomic, distributional, and other related information. It will also allow us to employ emerging software innovations such as fully interactive keys and descriptions. The Flora will treat an estimated 1400 species – about 27% of Canada’s vascular flora (5113 species, Brouillet et al. 2010+). As a preliminary working checklist of taxa in the Flora region, we are following the Annotated Checklist of the Panarctic Flora (PAF) Vascular Plants (Elven et al. 2011). The number of species in the Arctic Flora of Canada and Alaska region is likely lower as the PAF Checklist included numerous borderline species that may or may not be in our Flora region, and included many boreal species present in the Hudson Bay Lowlands but not in the Flora region. A precise listing of species in the Flora region awaits careful checking of specimens, which will happen as part of preparing taxonomic treatments. The Arctic Flora is being developed using Scratchpads (Smith et al. 2009, 2011), a Drupal-based content management system for biodiversity data (Fig. 1,2). Example treatments are online for Pedicularis langsdorffii subsp. arctica, P. hirsuta (draft treatments), and Elymus alaskanus (complete nomenclatural data), and can be found at GEOGRAPHICAL LIMITS OF THE FLORA Figure 4: Species richness and endemicity of the flora in the four North American floristic provinces (Elven et al. 2011) that comprise the Arctic Flora of Canada and Alaska region. For each province the percentage of total Arctic diversity is given, followed by number of endemic taxa and percentage of total Arctic endemics. Figure adapted from Daniëls et al. (2013). Figure 1: Home page of the AFCA Website ( B C D E F A Figure 2: Examples of species-level treatments on the Arctic Flora of Canada and Alaska website. Data for each taxon are organized by tabs: A) Overview (nomenclature and image summary), B) Descriptions and other information, C) Media, D) Literature, E) Maps, and F) Specimens. North Alaska-Yukon (AN) – 33% (26 endemic – 25%) Ellesmere-North Greenland (EP) – 9% (28 endemic – 26%) Central Canada (CC) – 28.9% (34 endemic – 32%) Hudson Bay-Labrador (HL) – 34.7% (20 endemic – 19%) Of the 2218 vascular plant species recorded for the circumpolar arctic, 1473 are reported for the four floristic provinces that comprise the Flora area (Elven et al. 2011). This estimate is significantly higher than the 375 vascular plant taxa known for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (Aiken et al. 2007; Gillespie et al. in review.). The Hudson Bay-Labrador province has the highest species diversity (769 species), the Ellesmere province the lowest (199 species), reflecting the pronounced decrease in diversity from south to north. The Central Canada province has the highest number of Arctic endemics. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS NEW DISCOVERIES AND ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF THE CANADIAN ARCTIC ARCHIPELAGO Since the publication of the Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (Aiken et al. 2007), the last major floristic work in the AFCA region, museum-led collecting trips and examination of existing herbarium specimens have uncovered taxa not yet recorded from the Arctic Islands, including several newly described taxa, such as Puccinellia banksiensis (Consaul et al. 2008). In total, 30 species and infraspecific taxa have been added to the flora of the Archipelago, representing a 7.7% increase from Aiken et al. (2007). This includes the addition of 3 plant families and 7 genera (Gillespie et al. in review) [Table 1]. Further additions to the flora of the Canadian Arctic are probable, particularly at the species rich taiga to tundra transition on the Arctic mainland that has generally been poorly explored botanically. Field work is needed in many areas. Figure 5: New vascular plant species reported for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago since 2007. Left: Puccinellia banksiensis. Right: Triglochin palustris. We thank Roger D. Bull for the photographs presented in this poster. Financial support for the Arctic Flora of Canada and Alaska project is provided by the Canadian Museum of Nature. Fieldwork support was provided by the Polar Continental Shelf Program. Imagery ©2014 NASA, TerraMetrics, Map data ©2014 Google Imagery ©2014 NASA, TerraMetrics, Map data ©2014 Google Family Species Pteridaceae Cryptogramma stelleri (S.G. Gmel.) Prantl Cyperaceae Carex brunnescens (Pers.) Poir. Juncaginaceae Triglochin palustris L. Orchidaceae Platanthera obtusata (Banks ex Pursh) Lindl. subsp. obtusata Poaceae Leymus mollis (Trin.) Pilg. subsp. mollis Puccinellia banksiensis Consaul Potamogetonaceae Stuckenia subretusa (Hagstr.) Holub Amaranthaceae Suaeda calceoliformis (Hook.) Moq. Brassicaceae Braya humilis subsp. ellesmerensis J.G. Harris Braya glabella subsp. prostrata J.G. Harris Braya thorild-wulffii subsp. glabrata J.G. Harris Draba simmonsii Elven & Al-Shehbaz Draba cayouettei G.A. Mulligan & Al-Shehbaz Caryophyllaceae Arenaria longipedunculata Hultén Ericaceae Andromeda polifolia L. Lentibulariaceae Utricularia ochroleuca R.W. Hartm. Papaveraceae Papaver hultenii Knaben Primulaceae Primula egaliksensis Wormsk. Ranunculaceae Coptidium × spitsbergense (Hadač) Luferov & Prob. Saxifragaceae Saxifraga rivularis subsp. arctolitoralis (Jurtz. & V.V. Petrovsky) M.H. Jørg. & Elven Table 1: Vascular plant species new to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) since the publication of Aiken et al. (2007). Records are based on field collections and literature sources, including Gillespie et al. (in review), Consaul et al. (2008), Harris (2006), Elven and Al-Shebaz (2008), Al-Shehbaz and Mulligan (2013), Solstad (2009), and Elven et al. (2011). R. BullR. Bull NOVEMBER 7TH, 2014 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.