We would like to thank respected
Professor Sheetal Desai for giving us an
opportunity to present our views on
pollution by Oil Refineries and creating
an awareness amongst the students
through the medium of this project.
An oil refinery is an industrial process
plant where the heavy crude oil which is
taken out of the ground is turned into
useful products like petroleum, naphtha
On one hand, they provide one of the
building blocks of modern life, but on the
other hand, they create all kinds of
Crude Oil Processing Useful Products
Refining is the process of converting crude oil
and gas into other, more useful chemicals.
There are four basic steps in refining…
1. Desalting- Remove salt and Impurities
2. Separation- Separate into different products
3. Conversion- Modifying the composition
4. Blending- Mix different materials to get a
Crude Oil Refining = D+S+C+B
Crude oil= complex mixture of hydrocarbon, water,
First it is cleaned and separated
Then it is changed from one type of molecule to
another to improve its properties
Later different products are blended together to
meet specific requirements
This Blended mixture reaches us as gasoline, diesel,
Crude Oil = Unprocessed Oil
Another name “PETROLEUM”
Starting point of many products. Why?
They contain „Hydrocarbons‟
What is Hydrocarbon?
These are molecules of Hydrogen and Carbon
They come in various lengths and structures
like straight chain, branching chain and rings.
Oil Refineries pollute air, water, soil and
noise. All refineries pollute the
environment at unacceptable and
Air- Harmful gases emitted by burning
crude oil released in air
Water- Water used for cooling and oil
leaks are disposed in water
Noise- Improper maintenance of
machines cause huge amounts of noise
Pollution from oil refineries near Taj Mahal is
turning the white monument into yellow stone
The industries are mostly situated along
the riverbanks for easy availability of
water and also disposal of the wastes
like acids, alkalis, dyes and other
This results in…
Change in pH of water
Mass of white foam in rivers
Heating up of the water
Reduction in oxygen, thermal pollution
Waste water from
Dead fishes- result
of pollution from
When crude oil or coal is heated at the
refinery, the sulphur is converted into a
gas called sulphur dioxide. It is
accompanied many other harmful
chemicals in smaller quantities.
Oil refineries cause pollution due to…
• Higher levels of SO2 by low quality oil
• Accidental fires, explosions and gas leaks
• Extensive hydrocarbon and particulate
Regular emission of
Accidental Fires or
Arabian sea polluted regularly by refineries
Reason is heavy imports leading which often
cause oil spill, leaks etc.
Refineries often dispose small amounts of oil
and harmful untreated water at regular basis.
As a result, tar balls on the coast of the sea
are a common problem.
Gases emitted by Refineries
Respiratory problems like asthma,
chest pain, bronchitis etc.
Other health problems like skin
irritation, nausea, leukemia, cancer etc.
High levels of SO2 can cause nausea, throat
irritation. Headaches and even death.
Daily exposure to SO2 causes narrowing
of air passage in throat, worsen asthma
and provoke asthma attacks.
Gases mix with moisture in the
air and later result in Acid
Rains which harm the ecology
Sewage Algal Bloom Demand
for oxygen Depletion for oxygen
Oil leaks and waste water
damage the aquatic creatures to
a large extent.
Water released by refineries is
harmful and is consumed by many
fishes in the water bodies. These
fishes when consumed by humans
Waste water released by Refineries
Oil Spill= Release of liquid petroleum
hydrocarbon in the environment due to
Marine or on Land
Has a huge impact on environment
Clean up may take weeks, months or years
Reasons for Spills
Spills while DrillingDamaged tankers
General Impacts of Oil Spill
Suffocation and Poisoning
Blinds the creatures
Damage to Mangroves
MOUSSE (Deadly Fevistick)
Tar balls and oily Residue
and oxygen absorption
Impacts on Flora and Fauna in Sea
Flight loss and oil consumption by birds
Food chain imbalance by harming small organisms
Hypothermic death of otters
Kills the Killer
Prevents gaseous exchange
Damage to the breeding grounds of creatures like turtle
Clean up of an
Leave is alone
to settle down
Contain it with
and speed its
agents to the
Role of Government and the Citizens
The Government has laid down certain rules for the refineries which
include installment of waste water treatment plants, Acid clay
process, Vacuum Distillation etc.
The Government is also coming up with contingency plans for
prevention of oil spills in the coming years of the country‟s
Regular environment audit is taken up by the government officials in
order to be updated with the activities of the refineries.
The people need to be aware about the impacts of oil refineries
They can use their rights in order to know the plans of the
government and also to check whether the refineries are following
the same or not.