Oil refineries with video (oil refineries a major cause of pollution)

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Oil refineries with video (oil refineries a major cause of pollution)

  1. 1. FOUNDATION COURSE Professor Sheetal Desai
  2. 2. OIL REFINERIES MAJOR SOURCE OF POLLUTION
  3. 3. We would like to thank respected Professor Sheetal Desai for giving us an opportunity to present our views on pollution by Oil Refineries and creating an awareness amongst the students through the medium of this project.
  4. 4. ROLL NO. NAMES 129 Sneha Kulkarni 130 Falguni Lahera 131 Charmy Lapasia 132 Riddhi Majithia 133 Khushboo Makwana 134 Pooja Makwana 135 Jay Marvania
  5. 5.  An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where the heavy crude oil which is taken out of the ground is turned into useful products like petroleum, naphtha etc.  On one hand, they provide one of the building blocks of modern life, but on the other hand, they create all kinds of pollution. Crude Oil Processing Useful Products
  6. 6.  Refining is the process of converting crude oil and gas into other, more useful chemicals. There are four basic steps in refining… 1. Desalting- Remove salt and Impurities 2. Separation- Separate into different products 3. Conversion- Modifying the composition 4. Blending- Mix different materials to get a specific product Crude Oil Refining = D+S+C+B Useful Products
  7. 7. Crude oil= complex mixture of hydrocarbon, water, salt etc. First it is cleaned and separated Then it is changed from one type of molecule to another to improve its properties Later different products are blended together to meet specific requirements This Blended mixture reaches us as gasoline, diesel, lubricants etc.
  8. 8. Pump Jack- Pulling Crude oil out of the ground
  9. 9.  Crude Oil = Unprocessed Oil  Another name “PETROLEUM”  Starting point of many products. Why? They contain „Hydrocarbons‟  What is Hydrocarbon? These are molecules of Hydrogen and Carbon  They come in various lengths and structures like straight chain, branching chain and rings.
  10. 10.  Oil Refineries pollute air, water, soil and noise. All refineries pollute the environment at unacceptable and unhealthy levels  Air- Harmful gases emitted by burning crude oil released in air  Water- Water used for cooling and oil leaks are disposed in water  Noise- Improper maintenance of machines cause huge amounts of noise
  11. 11. Pollution from oil refineries near Taj Mahal is turning the white monument into yellow stone BEFORE AFTER
  12. 12.  The industries are mostly situated along the riverbanks for easy availability of water and also disposal of the wastes like acids, alkalis, dyes and other chemicals.  This results in…  Change in pH of water  Mass of white foam in rivers  Heating up of the water  Reduction in oxygen, thermal pollution
  13. 13. Waste water from Refineries Dead fishes- result of pollution from refineries
  14. 14.  When crude oil or coal is heated at the refinery, the sulphur is converted into a gas called sulphur dioxide. It is accompanied many other harmful chemicals in smaller quantities.  Oil refineries cause pollution due to… • Higher levels of SO2 by low quality oil • Accidental fires, explosions and gas leaks • Extensive hydrocarbon and particulate pollution
  15. 15. Regular emission of harmful gases Accidental Fires or Explosions
  16. 16.  Arabian sea polluted regularly by refineries  Reason is heavy imports leading which often cause oil spill, leaks etc.  Refineries often dispose small amounts of oil and harmful untreated water at regular basis.  As a result, tar balls on the coast of the sea are a common problem.
  17. 17. Gases emitted by Refineries Respiratory problems like asthma, chest pain, bronchitis etc. Other health problems like skin irritation, nausea, leukemia, cancer etc. High levels of SO2 can cause nausea, throat irritation. Headaches and even death. Daily exposure to SO2 causes narrowing of air passage in throat, worsen asthma and provoke asthma attacks. Gases mix with moisture in the air and later result in Acid Rains which harm the ecology
  18. 18. Eutrophication and Thermal pollution Sewage  Algal Bloom  Demand for oxygen Depletion for oxygen Oil leaks and waste water damage the aquatic creatures to a large extent. Water released by refineries is harmful and is consumed by many fishes in the water bodies. These fishes when consumed by humans cause diseases. Waste water released by Refineries
  19. 19.  Oil Spill= Release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon in the environment due to human activity.  Marine or on Land  Different reasons  Has a huge impact on environment  Clean up may take weeks, months or years
  20. 20. Reasons for Spills Spills while DrillingDamaged tankers
  21. 21. General Impacts of Oil Spill Suffocation and Poisoning Blinds the creatures Damage to Mangroves MOUSSE (Deadly Fevistick) Tar balls and oily Residue Reduced Photosynthesis and oxygen absorption Hypothermia
  22. 22. Impacts on Flora and Fauna in Sea Flight loss and oil consumption by birds Food chain imbalance by harming small organisms Hypothermic death of otters Kills the Killer Prevents gaseous exchange Damage to the breeding grounds of creatures like turtle
  23. 23. Clean up of an Oil Spill Leave is alone to settle down Contain it with booms and collect using skimmer equipments Use Dispersants to break-up oil and speed its degradation Introduce biological agents to the spill to degrade it
  24. 24. Role of Government and the Citizens  The Government has laid down certain rules for the refineries which include installment of waste water treatment plants, Acid clay process, Vacuum Distillation etc.  The Government is also coming up with contingency plans for prevention of oil spills in the coming years of the country‟s development.  Regular environment audit is taken up by the government officials in order to be updated with the activities of the refineries.  The people need to be aware about the impacts of oil refineries  They can use their rights in order to know the plans of the government and also to check whether the refineries are following the same or not.

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