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Motivation theories and relevant topics


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The Word doc is baased on motivation, its theories and relevant topics. The PPT of this data is also uploaded by me so pls do have a look. I hope it helps.

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Motivation theories and relevant topics

  1. 1. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 1 Motivation and Its Related Terms -Purav Sangani & Vidhi Kothari Meaning The word motivation comes from a Latin word ‘movere’, which means ‘to move’. Motivation is a psychological feature thatinduces an organism to act towards a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal-directed behaviours. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological one that compelsorreinforcesanactiontowarda desiredgoal.Forexample, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat. Motivation is the purpose or psychological cause of an action. Motivation and related terms It may seem like a subtle distinction, but the worlds of motivation and inspiration are millions of milesapart.A lot of people use the words“motivated” and “inspired” interchangeably. But there is somethingdifferenttobe the case.When one tries to motivate oneself, nine times out of ten on is pushing me to do something he/she don’t really care about. Inspiration comes from a completely different place. The word inspiration means to be in spirit. When you’re tuned into your spirit, you are naturally drawn to do whatever feels best. You may dothingsthat aren’toutwardlyproductive.Oryou may write a book in 30 days. Either way, it’s all good because fulfilment is the end result. Motivation, on the other hand, usually has a lot to do with fake growth. You think you should be doingsomething(withoutthinkingabout why) and it often leads in the direction of something that doesn’treallymatter.It’swhatyou’re “supposed”tobe doing.It’sjusta good idea,nota passionate, burning desire that emanates from the core of your being. So, motivation is about things that you think you should do or that you’re supposed to do. Inspiration is about being called to act because you’re in direct alignment with the magnetic, luminous marrow of potential that is you. Whenyou’re inspiredyouknowbecause… Life feels effortless. You have to holdyourself backfromstarting rightnow. Your passionburnssteady,itdoesn’tflatline. It occupiesmagnitudesof mental space,there’snovacancy. You feel calledtodothis;the feelingcomesfromyourcore. You feel itin yourbones. Here are some responsesthatpeoplegave whentheywere askedtodefine motivationand inspiration: “Motivationisrequiredwhenyou’renotalignedwithyourhighestvalues.” “Motivationisnot alwayspositive.” “Motivationisexternal,inspirationisinternal”
  2. 2. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 2 “Motivationisinnerdrive tofulfil goal.Inspirationishavingaglimpse of whoyoureallyare.” “Motivationisthe push.Inspirationisthe pull.” It’sinterestinghoweveryoneseesinspirationandmotivationdifferently. Emotionisdifferentfrommotivationinthatthere isnotnecessarilyagoal orientationaffiliated with it. Emotions occur as a result of an interaction between perception of environmental stimuli, hormonal responses to these perceptions and subjective cognitive labeling of these feelings. Motivation is the inner stimulus that leads to an action that satisfies the need. Any idea, need or emotionthatpromptsa man intoactionis motivation.Motivationisthe force that energizes human behaviour.Inotherwords,youhave certainneedsor wants and this causes you to do certain things whichsatisfythose needsandthiscanthenchange which needs/wants are primary and which ones are secondary. Is motivation manipulation? Motivation motivates someone into positive action from an input of enthusiastic support of the cause, whereas manipulation tricks someone into complying as a result of being manipulating coerced to follow the leader’s position not from being enthused, but more often from fear. There is often said to be only a fine line between manipulating someone and motivating them. In both cases, you can get someone into action, in working for you, or following your cause. Manipulationexertsapowerful influence ontosomeone totryto getthemto follow alongwith your direction.Usuallyaspecificoutcome oraparticularresponse isbeingbullied out of someone in this way. Manipulationthenusuallyfeelslike being forced, pushed, or dragged along, whereas motivation is more about creatingthe energyinsomeone that theywill thenfollow youwiththeirownvolition,by deciding to do so, as a result of the enthusiasm they might be now feeling for your cause. Enthusiasm can be caught by others when you are being over enthusiastic towards them, and in itself thismightactuallybe seenbyothersasalsobeing a form of manipulation, hence the thin line that exists between the two terms. Four stages from motivation to de-motivation in an organization 1. Motivational ineffective:anemployeeismostmotivatedinthisstage. He ismotivatedbut because he isnewinthe environment,he doesnotknow whattodo,so he is ineffective. 2. Motivational effective:the employee haslearnedwhattodoand doesit withdrive and energy. 3. De-motivational effective:aftersome timethe motivational level goesdownandthe employeestartslearningthe tricksof the trade. 4. De-motivational ineffective:employeeisleastmotivatedinthisstage andalsoreduces performance. Unfaircriticism,publichumiliation,rewardingthe non-performer,failure orfearof failure,low self esteem,office politicsare some otherfactorsof de-motivation.
  3. 3. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 3 Techniques of Motivation There are primarily two techniques of motivation Financial motivation: Although some theorist believe that money is not a positive motivator, pay system are designed to motivate employees Why is pay important? It is an important cost for a business. Pay helps to satisfy many needs. It helps attract reliable employeeswiththe skillsthe businessneedsforsuccess.Payalsohelpsretainemployees. For, most of the employees’ remuneration package is the most important part of job. Business includes an elementof performance relatedrewardintheirpaystructure.Howeveritisimportantto remember that pay is only one element of motivation and will work best where management also gives attention to  Developing good management and supervision  Providing feedback to staff about their performance  Making effective arrangements for communication When managers are asked to list motivators for employees the list looks like  Salary  Bonuses  Vacation  Retirement  Other benefit  Interesting work  Feedback  Training  Respect It is interesting to note that managers rank money items as their employees’ top 5 motivators. When employees are asked to rank their own motivators the list looks like this:  Interesting work  Involved in decision  Feedback  Training  Respect  Salary  Bonuses  Vacation  Retirement  Other benefits It is interesting to note that employees list is just the opposite to that of managers list.
  4. 4. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 4 Non- Financial motivation: financial motivatorsdonotworkforevertomotivate people at work and employees. Employees do not always run after money. The following are the non financial incentives: 1. Competition:if there isa healthycompetition among the individual employees or group of employees it will lead them to achieve their personal or group goals in a better way. 2. Praise: it satisfies ones ego needs. Sometimes, praise is more effective than any other incentives. 3. Opportunity for growth: if the employeesare providedopportunitiesfortheiradvancement and growthand to developtheirpersonality, they feel very much satisfy and become more committed to the organizational goals. 4. Suggestionsystem:Many organizations which use the suggestion system make use of cash awardsfor useful suggestion. This motivates the employees to be in search for some thing which maybe of greater use to the organization. MYTHS IN MOTIVATION The topic of motivating employees is extremely important to managers and supervisors. Before lookingatwhat managementcandoto supportthe motivationof employees, it is important first to clear up these common myths. Myth #1: “The manager can motivate people” Notreally.Motivationisinternal innature.Employees have to motivate and empower themselves. However, the manager can set up an environment where they best motivate and empower themselves. Myth #2: “moneyis a good motivator” Moneymaybe one of the motivatorstostart up and thismaybe true for people especiallyinthe juniormanagementlevel.Butaftera certainstage moneystopsfunctioningasa motivator. Myth #3 : “Fear is a good motivator” Nowwe are inthe knowledge era where individuals are expected to be a powerful courtesy in the knowledge base theypossess. Insucha scenario,fearmaybe a greatmotivatorfor a very short time but it may trigger rebellious actions from the employees. Myth #4 : “What motivates me is what motivates my employees”: Differentthingsmotivate differentpeople.Itdependsonpersonal andprofessional agendas of each and every employee and is distinct for each one of them.
  5. 5. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 5 BASIC PRINCIPLES: These basic principles are MUST to be remembered. M-Motivating employees start with motivating oneself. If one is doing good job of taking care of oneself. U- Understanding what motivates each of them as each person is motivated by different things. S- Supporting employee motivation is a process, and not a task. T- To map and match the goals of the organization with goals of employees.
  6. 6. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 6 Four Drive Theory - Jay Marvania Motivationcan be explainedasan inner stimulus that arises out of a need or want and gives rise to an actionthat wouldsatisfythatneedorwant.In simple words we can say that, any idea or need or emotion that makes a man do something or act in a particular way is called as motivation. It is a force or energy that drives the human actions or behavior. There are many theories proposed by differentpeopleonmotivation.Theoriesmaybe Contenttheories(theoneswhichdefinemotivation as need for satisfaction of different needs or wants) or Process theories (the ones which define motivation as a rational cognitive process) Four drive theorycanbe statedas one of the contenttheorieswhich focusesonthe fourbasicneeds that drive the human behavior into a certain course for its successful fulfillment. Many motivation expertsmayhave abandonedthe traditionaltheoriesof needs hierarchy or the ERG theory but they haven’tgivenuponthe fact that these needsare importantandsomewhereinside,these needs are the factors that contribute the most to motivation in individuals. The Four Drive Theory was developedbyProfessorPaul Lawrence andProfessorNitinNohriawho teachat the Harvard Business School. They believe that every individual is driven into doing some action because of four basic factors which drive him. The Four Drive Theoryorganizesthe,acquire,learn and defend. These drivesare notsomethingwhichisfoundinonlyfew individuals.Theseare common all around the globe and hence universally applicable. The special characteristic of this theory is that these drivesare independenti.e.eachdrive hasitsownuniqueness.Sothere isnodependencyamongthe four drives. The following are the four drives: 1. Drives to Bond- Humans are social animals. Thus they cannot stay alone or bear loneliness for a long time which is why we all form social relationships and develop mutual caring commitmentswitheachother.Anywhere inanycornerof the worldwe won’tfindsomeone who would not be having some bond with someone. It is because it is a human nature to share and communicate the feelingsandthoughtswiththe ones around them. This drive to bond motivates people to cooperate and work together towards a common goal which is one the important factors for any organization’s success or development of the society at large. 2. Drive to Acquire- Everyindividualhas some goals or some aims in his mind which he wants to achieve. This is the drive to seek, take control and retain objects and personal experiences. It is not limited to the basic needs of food, clothing and shelter but goes beyondthatsuch as needforrelative statusand recognition in society. The drive to acquire givesrise to a healthy competition among different individuals having a common goal. We all know that human wants are insatiable i.e. they are never ending. Thus we can say that the drive to acquire is insatiable because the purpose of motivation is to achieve a higher goal or position than others or, in some cases, oneself.
  7. 7. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 7 3. Drive to Learn- I believe that human brain is such that it becomes curious on the sight of something new. It is because it functions in such a way that it makes one clear the knowledge gapwhichprevailswhenone doesnotknow something or sees something new. Thisdrive isto satisfyourcuriosity,toknow and understandourselvesandthe environment around us. When observing something that is inconsistent with or beyond our current knowledge, we experience a tension that motivates us to close that information gap. This drive is related to higher-order needs of growth and self-actualization described in the traditional theories of Needs hierarchy and others. The developments in science or our surroundings are a result of this drive which makes us learn new and better ways of doing the same thing. 4. Drive to Defend- This drive does not limit itself to the action of defending in the physical termsbut alsosocially.Expertsbelieveittobe the veryfirstdrive to developwhichcreates a fight-or-flight response in the face of danger. It is a drive that is triggered automatically in the presence of danger to oneself weather physically or socially. When compared to other drives,we cansay that this drive is always reactive i.e. it comes up when one feels danger. However the other three drives are proactive i.e. we actively seek to improve our achievements, knowledge and relations. The science behindthese drivesdrivinganindividualisalsoexplainedtosome extentbythe experts. Experts believe that every bit of information we receive is quickly and unconsciously tagged with emotional markersthatsubsequently shape our logical analysis of the situation. Our motivation to act is a result of rational thinking influenced by these markers. From what I understand from the above analysis by experts, the emotions that prevail in humans determine in which areas the different drives would work. For example a kid watches someone dance and is attracted to it. His drive tolearnwill be activatedbecause itissomething out of his current knowledge. Later on when he has learned it, his drive to acquire will make him dance to gain appreciation in the society. Furtherhisdrive tobond will make him interact with people having similar interests. And finally if someone were tocriticize the dance or the activity of dancing, he might feel offended and thus his drive to defend will make him angry for the unacceptance by someone. However this will not be a case if the kidwouldnothave likeddancinginthe firstplace.Thus the four innate drives determine our emotions in different situations. This knowledge is very useful in workplace as different people will act differently base on their drives. Experts say that, our conscious analysis of competing demands from the four drives generatesneeds that energize us to act in ways acceptable to society and our own moral compass. This explains how are needs are based in inner innate drives, how emotions are generated from those drivesinthe contextof a specific situation, and how personal experience and cultural values influencethe intensity,persistence,anddirectionof effort.Howeverthismodel is new and requires much more work to clarify the role of skill sets in goal-directed choice and efforts.
  8. 8. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 8 The developers of this theory provide a main recommendation that the organization must ensure that the individualjobsandworkplacesprovide balancedopportunities to fulfill the drives to bond, acquire, learn and defend. They give two recommendations when talking about application of the four drive theory in organizations. The first one says that all the drives must be regularly fulfilled. The theory says that we are constantly seeking fulfillment of our innate drives. Thus the best workplace for motivation and morale provide sufficient rewards, learning opportunities, social interactionsandsoforthfor all the employees.The secondone isthatthese drivesmustbe kept in a balance. The organization must avoid too much or too little opportunity to fulfill each drive. The reasonfor thisisthat the four drives counterbalance each other. For example, an organization that energizesthe drive toacquire without the drive to bond may eventually suffer from organizational politicsandconflicts.Change andnovelty in workplace will aid the drive to learn but too much of it will trigger the drive to defend so that the employees become territorial and resistant to change. Thus these are the four innate drives in practical application and the recommendations by its developerswhichwill eventuallybe helpful tothe managersorthe higherlevel managementpeople whoneedto manage a certainnumberof employees.The FourDrive Theoryis somewhat related or similar to David McClelland’s Theory of learned needs.
  9. 9. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 9 Theory Of Learned Needs - Bhavin Soni Introduction: Managing a group of people with different personalities is never easy. But if you're managing or leading a team, it's essential to know what motivates your people, how they respond to feedback and praise, and what tasks fit them well. Psychologist David McClelland's Human Motivation Theory gives you a way of identifying people's motivating drivers. This can then help you to give praise and feedback effectively, assign them suitable tasks, and keep them motivated. Need for Achievement People withastrongneedforachievementwanttoaccomplishreasonablychallenginggoalsthrough their own effort. They prefer working alone rather than in teams, and they choose task with a moderate degree of riski.e.neither too easy nor too hard to complete. High need for achievement people also desire unambiguous feedback and recognition of their success. Money is a weak motivator, except when it provided feedback and recognition. People motivated by achievement need challenging, but not impossible, projects. They thrive on overcoming difficult problems or situations,somake sure youkeepthemengaged this way. People motivated by achievement work very effectively either alone or with other high achievers. In contrast, employees with such a low need for achievement perform their work better when money is used as an incentive. Successful entrepreneurs tend to have a high need for achievement, possibly because they establish challenging goals for themselves and thrive on competition. When providing feedback, give achievers a fair and balanced appraisal. They want to know what they're doing right – and wrong – so that they can improve. Need for Affiliation: Need for affiliation refers to a desire to seek approval from others, confirm to their wishes and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontations. People with strong need for affiliation try to project a favourable image of them. They tend to actively support others and try to smooth out workplace conflicts.Highneedforaffiliationemployeesgenerallyworkwell inco-ordinating roles to mediate conflicts, and in sales positions where the main task is cultivating long term relations. However, they tend to be less effective at allocating scarce resources and making other decisions that potentially generate conflict. People in decision-making positions must have a relatively low needforaffiliationsothattheirchoicesand actions are not biased by a personal need for approval. People motivated by affiliation work best in a group environment, so try to integrate them with a team (versus working alone) whenever possible. They also don't like uncertainty and risk. When providingfeedbacktothese people,be personal.It'sstill importanttogive balanced feedback, but if you start your appraisal by emphasizing their good working relationship and your trust in them,
  10. 10. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 10 they'll likelybe more opentowhatyousay.Rememberthat these people often don't want to stand out, so it might be best to praise them in private rather than in front of others. Need for Power: People with a high need for power want to exercise control over others and are concerned about maintaining leadership positions. They frequently rely on persuasive communication, make more suggestions in the meetings and tend to publicly evaluate situations more frequently. David McClellandpointedoutthatthere are twotypesof needforpower.Those whoenjoytheirpowerfor their own sake use it to advance personal interest and wear their power as a status symbol have personalizedpower.Othersmainlyhave ahighneedforsocializedpowerbecause theydesire power as a means to help others. McClelland asserted that leaders are more effective when they have a highneedforsocializedratherthanpersonalizedpower.Theyshouldhave ahigh degree of altruism and social responsibility and must be concerned about the consequences of their own actions on others. Those with a high need for power work best when they're in charge. Because they enjoy competition, they do well with goal-oriented projects or tasks. They may also be very effective innegotiations orin situations in which another party must be convinced of an idea or goal. When providingfeedback,be directwiththeseteammembers.Andkeepthemmotivatedbyhelping them further their career goals. Let's look at the 2 steps for using McClelland's theory: Step 1: IdentifyDrivers Examine your team to determine which of the three motivators is dominant for each person. You can probably identify drivers based on personality and past actions. For instance,perhapsone of yourteammembersalwaystakescharge of the group when you assign a project.He speaksupinmeetingstopersuade people,andhe delegates responsibilities to others to meetthe goalsof the group.He likestobe incontrol of the final deliverables. This team member is likely primarily driven by the power. You mighthave anotherteammember who never speaks during meetings. She always agrees with the group,workshard to manage conflictwhenitoccurs, and visibly becomes uncomfortable when youtalk aboutdoing high-risk, high-reward projects. This person is likely to have a strong need for affiliation. Step 2: Structure YourApproach Based on the driving motivators of your workers, structure your leadership style and project assignmentsaroundeachindividualteammember.Thiswill helpensurethatthey all stay engaged , motivated, and happy with the work they're doing.
  11. 11. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 11 Expectancy Theory - Pooja Gada & Harsh Mehta Expectancytheory proposesthatanindividual will decide to behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be. In essence, the motivation of the behavior selection is determinedby the desirability of the outcome. However, at the core of the theory is the cognitive process of how an individual processes the different motivational elements. This is done before makingthe ultimate choice.The outcome is not the sole determining factor in making the decision of howto behave. Expectancytheoryisaboutthe mental processesregardingchoice, or choosing. It explainsthe processesthatanindividual undergoes to make choices. In the study of organizational behavior,expectancytheoryisamotivation theoryfirstproposedby VictorVroomof the Yale School of Management. "Thistheoryemphasizesthe needs for organizations to relate rewards directly to performance and to ensure that the rewards provided are those rewards deserved and wanted by the recipients." VictorH. Vroom(1964) defines motivation as a process governing choices among alternative forms of voluntaryactivities,aprocesscontrolledbythe individual.The individual makes choices based on estimates of how well the expected results of a given behavior are going to match up with or eventuallyleadtothe desired results. Motivation is a product of the individual’s expectancy that a certain effort will lead to the intended performance, the instrumentality of this performance to achievingacertainresult,andthe desirabilityof this result for the individual, known as valence. In 1964, Vroomdevelopedthe Expectancytheorythroughhisstudyof the motivationsbehinddecision making. His theory is relevant to the study of management. Currently, Vroom is a John G. Searle Professor of Organization and Management at the Yale University School of Management. Key elements The ExpectancyTheoryof Motivationexplainsthe behavioral processof whyindividuals choose one behavioral option over another. It also explains how they make decisions to achieve the end they value.Vroomintroducesthree variables within the expectancy theory which are valence (V), .over another because they are clearly defined: effort-performance expectancy (E>P expectancy), performance-outcome expectancy (P>O expectancy). Three componentsof Expectancytheory:Expectancy,Instrumentality,andValence 1. Expectancy:Effort→ Performance (E→P) 2. Instrumentality:Performance → Outcome (P→O) 3. Valence- V(R)
  12. 12. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 12 Expectancy: Effort → Performance (E→P) Expectancyisthe belief thatone'seffort(E) will resultinattainmentof desiredperformance (P) goals. It isusuallybasedonan individual'spastexperience,self-confidence (self-efficacy) andthe perceiveddifficultyof the performance standardorgoal.Thiswill affecthow the individual's decisionmakingprocessbecausetheywill ultimatelychose behaviorsthatwill insure theirdesired goals.There are 3 componentsassociatedwiththe individual'sExpectancyperception.Theyare self- efficacy,goal difficulty,andperceivedcontrol. 1. Self-efficacy- the person’sbeliefabouttheirabilitytosuccessfullyperformaparticularbehavior. The individual will assesswhethertheyhave the requiredskillsorknowledgedesiredtoachieved theirgoals. 2. Goal difficulty- whengoalsare settoohighor performance expectationsthatare made too difficult.Thiswill mostlikely leadtolowexpectancy.Thisoccurswhenthe individual believesthat theirdesiredresultsare unattainable. 3. PerceivedControl- isone'sbelief intheircontrol overtheirperformance.Inorderforexpectancy to be high,individualsmustbelieve thattheyhave some degreeof control overthe expected outcome.If an individual doesnotbelieve theyhave anycontrol overthe outcome the motivationto increase effortwillbe low. Some examplesof expectancyinclude- If I studytonightforan examitwill improve mygrade tomorrow if I practice my swinginthe battingcages I will performbetterinthe game Instrumentality: Performance → Outcome (P→O) Instrumentality is the belief that a person will receive a reward if the performance expectation is met.Thisrewardmay come in the formof a pay increase,promotion,recognitionorsense of Factors associated with the individual's instrumentality for outcomes are trust, control and policies. If individualstrusttheirsuperiors,theyare more likelytobelieve theirleaderspromises.Whenthere is a lack of trust in leadership, people often attempt to control the reward system. When individuals believe they have some kind of control over how, when, and why rewards are distributed, Instrumentalitytendstoincrease.Formalizedwrittenpoliciesimpactthe individuals'instrumentality perceptions. Instrumentality is increased when formalized policies associate rewards to performance. Valence V(R) Valence:the value anindividualplacesonthe rewardsof anoutcome,whichisbasedon theirneeds, goals, values and Sources of Motivation. Influential factors include one's values, needs, goals, preferences and sources that strengthen their motivation for a particular outcome. Valence is characterized by the extent to which a person values a given outcome or reward. This is not an actual level of satisfaction rather the expected satisfaction of a particular outcome. The valence refers to the value the individual personally places on the rewards. -1 →0→ +1 -1= avoiding the outcome 0 = indifferent to the outcome +1 = welcomes the outcome
  13. 13. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 13 In order for the valence to be positive, the person must prefer attaining the outcome to not attaining it. The Expectancy Theory of motivation can help managers understand how individuals make decisions regarding various behavioral alternatives, and why they pursue these decisions. Valence isone behavioralalternative,wherethe decisionismeasured on the value of the reward. If managementunderstandsthe desired outcomes from their employees, the can design and build a reward system that is satisfactory. The model below shows the direction of motivation, when behavior is energized: Motivational Force (MF) = Expectancyx InstrumentalityxValence Whendecidingamongbehavioraloptions,individualsselectthe option with the greatest amount of motivational force (MF). Expectancy andinstrumentality are attitudes(cognitions),whereas valence is rooted in an individual’s value system. Examples of valued outcomes in the workplace include, pay increases and bonuses, promotions, time off, new assignments, recognition, etc. If management can effectively determine what their employee values, this will allow the manager to motivate employees in order to get the highest result and effectiveness out of the work place accomplishment. Instrumentality is low when the reward is the same for all performances given. Expectancy Theory-In Practice Expectancytheoryhassome importantimplicationsformotivatingemployees. The theory provides guidelines for enhancing employee motivation by altering the individual’s effort-to-performance expectancy,performance-to-rewardexpectancy,and rewardvalences.Several practical implications of expectancy theory are Increasing Effort-to-Performance Expectancy Leaders should try to increase the belief that employees are capable of performing the job successfully. Ways of doing this include: select people with the required skills and knowledge; provide the required training and clarify job requirements; provide sufficient time and resources; assign progressively more difficult tasks based on training; eliminate problems that may disturb effective performance; provide examples of employees who have mastered the task; and provide coachingto employeeswholack self-confidence.Good leaders not only make it clear to employees what is expected of them but also help them attain that level of performance. E-to-Pexpectanciesare influencedbythe individual’sbelief thathe orshe can successfullycomplete the task. Some companies increase this can do attitude by assuring employees that they have the necessarycompetencies,clearrole perceptions,andnecessaryresourcestoreachthe desired levels of performance.Matchingemployeestojob based on their abilities and clearly communicating the tasks required for the job is an important part of this process. Similarly, E-to-P expectancies are learnt,sobehavioural modellingandsupportive feedback typicallystrengthenthe individuals belief that he or she is able to perform the task.
  14. 14. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 14 Increasing Performance-to-Outcome Expectancy Leadersshouldtryto increase the belief thatgoodperformance will result in valued rewards. Ways of doing so include: measure job performance accurately; describe clearly the rewards that will result from successful performance; describe how the employee’s rewards were based on past performance;provide examplesof other employeeswhosegoodperformance hasresultedin higher rewards.Leaders shouldlinkdirectlythe specificperformance theydesireto the rewards desired by employees. Compensation mechanisms can be a powerful incentive in linking performance to rewards.Compensationsystemsthatrewardpeople directly based on how well they perform their jobs are known as pay-for-performance plans. These may take such forms as “commission plans” used for sales personnel, “piece-rate systems” used for factory workers and field hands, and “incentive stockoption(ISO)plans”forexecutive.However,rewardslinkedtoperformance neednot be monetary.Symbolicandverbal formsof recognition for good performance can be very effective as well. P-to-Oexpectanciesare perception,soemployeesshouldbelieve thathigherperformance will result in higher rewards. Having a performance base reward system is important but this fact must be communicated. When rewards are distributed, employees should understand how their rewards have beenbasedonpast performance.More generally, companies need to regularly communicate the existence of a performance based reward system through examples, anecdotes and public ceremonies. Increasing Valences of Outcome Leadersshould try to increase the expected value of rewards resulting from desired performance. Ways of doingthisinclude:distribute rewardsthatemployees value.Withademographicallydiverse workforce,itismisleadingtobelieve thatall employeesdesire the same rewards. Some employees may value apromotionor a pay raise,whereas othersmaypreferadditionalvacationdays,improved insurance benefits,daycare,orelder-care facilities.Manycompanieshave introducedcafeteria-style benefitplans—incentive systemsthatallow employeesto selecttheirfringebenefitsfromamenu of available alternatives.Anotherissue thatmay surface withexpectancytheoryisthe needforleaders to minimize the presence of counter valent rewards i.e. performance rewards that have negative valences.Forexample,groupnormsmaycause some employees to perform their jobs at minimum levelseventhoughformal rewardsandthe jobitself would otherwise motivate them to perform at higher levels. Does Expectancy Theory Fit Reality? Expectancytheoryremainsone of the better theories for predicting work effort and motivation. In particular it plays the valuable role by detailing a person’s thinking process when translating the competingdemandsof the fourdrivesintospecificefforts.Expectancy theory has been applied to a wide varietyof studentssuch aspredictingstudentmotivationtoparticipate inteachingevaluations, usinga decisionsupportsystem, leaving the organization, and engaging in organization citizenship behaviours. Research also indicates that expectancy theory predicts employee motivation in different cultures.
  15. 15. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 15 One limitation is that expectancy theory seems to ignore the central role of emotion in employee effort and behaviour. As we learned in today’s workshop emotions serve as an adaptive function that demands our attention and energizes us to take action. The Valence element of expectancy theorycapturessome of thisemotional process,butonlyperipherally.Thus,theoristsprobablyneed to redesign the expectancy theory model in light of new information about the importance of emotions in motivation and behaviour.
  16. 16. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 16 Goal setting as a means of Motivation - Jainam Delivala Walkin almostanycall centre andyou will notice thatperformance isjudgedonseveral metricssuch as average pickup time (time to answer the call), length of time per call, and abandon rates(customers who hang up before the call is handled by a customer service representative).for example one recentsurveyreportedthatthe average pickuptime forcall centers in the united is 35 seconds, the average talk time Is 11 minutes for government and 6.5 minutes for private call centers, and average time on hold is 33 seconds .some call centers have large electronics boards showing how many customers are waiting and average time they have been waiting .Employees some time receive feedback on their computers ,such as the average length of time for each call at their work station associated with these numbers are specific goals ,and supervisors conduct goal setting sessions with each employee to help them understand and achieve those objectives Call centers rely on goal setting and feed back to motivate employees and achieve superior performance goal settingisthe process of motivatingemployeesandclarifying theirrole perception by establishing performance objectives. It is potentially improves employee’s performance intwoways: (1) by stretching the intensity and persistence of effort and (2) by giving employees clearer role perception so that their effort is channelled towards behaviours that will improve work performance. Short time frame, such as reduce scrap rate by 7 percent over the next six months” Specific goal communicate precise performance expectation so employees can direct their effort more efficiently and reliably. Relevant goal s must also be relevant to the individual’s job and within his or her control. For example, agoal toreduce waste materialswouldhave little value if employees don’t have much control over waste in the production process. Characteristics of effective goals Goal setting is more complex than simply telling someone to “do your best” instead it requires six conditions tomaximisetask effortand performance: specific goal, relevant goal, challenging goals, goal commitment, participation in goal formation (sometimes) and goal fed back. Specificgoals Employeesputmore effortintotaskwhentheyworktowardsspecificgoal ratherthan“do your best”targets.Specificgoal have measurablelevelsof change overa specificandrelativelyshorttime frame. Relevantgoals Goalsmust alsobe relevanttothe individual’sjobandwithinhisorhercontrol.Forexample: A Goal to reduce waste materialswouldhave littlevalue if employeesdon’thave muchcontrol overwaste inthe productionprocess.
  17. 17. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 17 Challenginggoals Challenginggoals(ratherthaneasyones) cause peopletoraise the intensityandpersistence of their workeffortandto thinkthroughinformationmore actively.Theyalso fulfilaperson’sneedfor achievementorself actualizationneedswhenthe goal isachieved.General Electric,GoldmanSachs, and manyotherorganizations emphasize stretchgoal.These goalsdon’tjuststretchyourabilities and motivation:they are goalsthatyoudon’tknow how to reach, so youneedtobe creative to achieve them. Goal commitment Althoughgoal shouldbe challenging,employeesalsoneedtobe committedtoaccomplishinggoals. Thus we needtofindan optimal level of goal difficultywhere goal are challenging.Yetemployees are still motivatedtoachieve them.Thisisthe same asthe e to p expectancythatthe goal can been accomplished,the lesscommitted(motivated) the employee istothe goal. Goal participation Goal settingis usually(butnotalways) more effective whenemployees participateinsettinggoals. Employeesidentifymore withgoal theyare involvedinsettingthangoal assignedbysupervisor.In fact todaywork force increasinglyexpectstobe involvedingoal settingandotherdecisionsthat affectthem.Participationmayalsoimprove goal qualitybecauseemployeeshave valuable informationandknowledgethatmaynot be knownto managerswhodevelopthesegoalsalone. Thisparticipationensuresthatemployeesbuyintothe goalsandhave the competenciesand resourcesnecessarytoaccomplishthem. Goal Feedback Feedbackis anothernecessaryconditionforeffectivegoal setting.Feedbackisanyinformationthat people receive aboutthe consequencesof theirbehaviour.Feedbackletusknow whetherwe have achievedagoal or are properlydirectingourefforttowardsit.Fedbackisalsoessential ingredientin motivationbecause ourgrowthneedscan’tbe satisfiedunlesswe receive informationaboutgoal accomplishment.Fedbackiscentral to goal settingthatwe will lookmore closelyatitnext. CASE STUDY: “Stretch goals send speedera staff to the beach” Near the end of a recent financial quarter, speedera network 120 employees in Bangalore, India receivedan enticitingchallenge fromfounderandCEOAjitGupta.”If we pull togetherto achieve our business targets {for the next quarter} then we will all be on a beach in May.”Employees at the internetApplicationsCompany(now mergedwithAkmai) even voted on the preferred destination. Speederawouldcoveremployee expensesaswell as50% of a spouse’sorfamilymember’sexpenses for four days. Everyone worked feverishly towards the company’s goal, which included a hefty increase inrevenue.Theirmotivation was further fuelled with constant reminders of the Hawaiian trip. “The offices were transformed to look like tropical islands” says Gupta. Staff also received postcards and brouchers with tempting images of the resort and its attractions. Much to everyone delight the company achieved its goals and Speedera staff from both countries had a memorable bonding experience on Hawaiian beaches
  18. 18. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 18 Motivation Through Feedback - Kanan Karwat Characteristics of effective feedback:- Feedback is a key ingredient in goal setting and employee performance. It communicates what behaviour is appropriate or necessary in a particular situation and improves ability by frequently providinginformationtocorrectperformance problems.Informationidentifiesagapbetweenactual and ideal performance isknownascorrective feedbackbecause it raises awareness of performance errors and identifies ways to correct that errors. Under some circumstances, feedback also motivates employees. This is particularly true when feedbackispositive,such asthe peer-to-peerrecognitionactivitiesdescribedinthe openingvignette to this chapter. These recognition programs communicate feedback as rewards, so they have the double benefit of informing employees about their performance and fulfilling their ne eds. Constructive feedback can also be motivating when employees have a strong “can-do” attitude towards the task and a learning orientation. Many of the characteristicof goal settingalsoapplyto the effective feedback.first, feedback should be specific. The information provided should be connected to the details of the goal, rather than subjective and general phrases such as “your sales are going well.” Second, feedback must be relevant, it must relate to the individual’s behaviour rather than to conditions beyond the individual’s control. This ensures that the feedback is not distorted by situational factors. Third, feedbackshouldbe timely;itshouldbe available as soon as possible after the behaviour or results. Timelinesshelpsemployeessee aclearassociation between their behaviour and its consequences. The forth,characteristicof effective feedbackisthatitshouldbe credible.Employeesare more likely to accept the feedback from trustworthy and credible sources. Finally, feedback should be sufficiently frequent. How frequent is “sufficiently”? The answer dependsonat leasttwothings.One considerationisthe employee’sknowledge andexperience with the task. Feedback is a form of reinforcement, so employees working on new task should receive more frequent corrective feedback because they require more behaviour guidance and reinforcement.Employeeswhoare repeatingfamiliartaskscan receive less frequent feedback. The secondfactor ishowlongit takesto complete the task.Feedbackisnecessarily less frequent in jobs witha longcycle time (executives and scientist) than in jobs with a short cycle time. (grocery store cashiers). Sources of feedback:- Feedbackcanoriginate fromnon social or social sources.Non social providesthe feedbackwithout communicatingthatinformation.The openingparagraphtothissectionmentionedthatcall centres have variousformsof non social feedbacksuchaselectronicdisplaysshowinghow manycallersare waitingandthe average time theyhave been waiting.Manyemployeesseethe resultsof theirwork effortwhile makingaproductor providingaservice where goodandpoorperformance isfairly obvious.
  19. 19. BUSINESSCOMMUNICATION 19 Social sourcesof feedbackinclude supervisors,clients,co-workersandanyone elsewho communicatesinformationaboutthe employee’s behaviourorresults.Supervisorsinsome call centres meetwitheachemployee afewtimeseachmonthtoreview monitoredcallsanddiscuss waysto improve these events.Inmostotherorganizationsemployeesreceiveformal feedback maybe once or twice eachyear,but informal feedbackoccursmore often. Multisource feedback:- Accordingto some estimates,managersatalmostall 500 firmsreceive feedbackabouttheirjob performance fromafull circle of people,includingdirectreports,bosses,vendors,customersand partners.Most plansalsogive employeescompletefreedomtochoose whowill rate them.The multisource feedbacktendstoprovidemostcompleteandaccurate informationthatfeedbackfrom a supervisoralone.It isparticularlyuseful whenthe supervisorisunable toobservethe employees behaviourorperformance throughoutthe year.Lowerlevel employeesalsofeel agreatersense of fairnessandopencommunicationwhentheyare able toprovide upwardfeedbackabouttheirboss’s performance. Howevermultisource feedbackalsocreateschallenges.Havingseveral people review somany workerscan be expensive andtime consuming.Withmultipleopinions,the 360 degree processcan alsoproduce ambiguousandconflictingfeedback,soemployeesmayrequire guidance tointerpret the results.A thirdconcernis that peersmayprovide inflatedratherthanaccurate feedbacktoavoid conflictsoverthe forthcomingyear.A final concernisthatcritical feedbackfrommanypeople can create emotional reactionsthanif the critical judgmentoriginatesfromjustone person. Choosing feedback sources:- With so many sources of feedback – executive coaching, multisource feedback, executive dashboards,customersurveys,equipmentgauges, nonverbal communicationfromyourboss,andso on-whichone works best under which conditions? The preferred feedback source depends on the purpose of the information.Tolearnabouttheirprogress toward goal accomplishment, employees usuallyprefernon-social feedbacksources,suchascomputerprintoutsorfeedbackdirectlyfromthe job. This is because information from the non-social sources is considered more accurate than informationfromsocial sources.Corrective feedback from non-social sources is also less damaging to self esteem. This is probably just as well because social sources tend to delay negative information,leave some of itout,anddistortthe bad newsina positive way.Whenemployees want to improve their self image they seek out positive feedback from social sources. It feels better to have co-workers say that you are performing the job well than to discover this from a computer printout.