Identifying Developmental Genes
Developmental Biology Report prepared by:
John Michael P. Angelo
Registered Professional T...
Genes that are developing
Animals

Mouse (Mus musculus)
Zebrafish (Danio reno)
Fruit fly (Drosophila

melanogaster)
C....
We can identify developmental genes
by the following comparisons
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Multicellularity
Cell movement
R...
Multicellularity
The multicellularity of the animals and plants mechanisms is

developed independently.
Explanation:
Tha...
MADS-Box Genes
This is a conserved sequence motif found in genes which

comprise the MADS-box gene family.
This box enco...
According to various researchers, the lengths of this box

were in the range between 168 to 180 base pairs and that is
th...
The name of the MADS-Box Genes
M – MCM1 from the budding yeast
A – Agamous from the thale cress
D – Deficiens from the ...
Serum response factor
It is a transcription factor that can be found in humans.
It is considered very important especial...
Function
In animals, they are involved in muscle development, cell
proliferation and differentiation. This ranges from the...
They have homeotic functions like the homeobox (or
HOX) genes of animals. While Agamous and Deficiens for
the plants parti...
The genes of the 4th function are essential for the timing of

the flower bloom correctly and fertilization helps to ensu...
Homeobox or Hox Genes
They are a group of related genes that controls the body plan

of the embryo along the anterior-pos...
Cell Movement
Animals

Plants

Motile animal cells

Positionally fixed plant

cells
Animal cells are motile.
The tissues may be folded and moved against each other

easily.
On the gastrulation of metazoan...
Plant cells are positionally fixed.
They are trapped in cells which are filled with rigid walls that

are made of cellulo...
Rigidity of the body shape
Animal

Plants

Body plan is clearly

Highly regulated by the

determined in most parts

envi...
Animal body plan is clearly determined
in most parts.
In different life stages, they are mostly clearly determined by

it...
Plant development is highly regulated
by the environment.
They are in variation and characterized by multiple times

occu...
Multicellular stages
Animals

Plants

One continuously

They have haploid and

multicellular stage

diploid stages.
Animal life cycle is just one
continuously multicellular stage
Many animals undergo one or more transformation, when

the...
Life cycle of all plants have haploid and
diploid stages.
That life cycle is called alternation of generations.
They are...
Meiosis
Animals

Plants

Gametes are formed

They undergo no gametic

directly through meiosis.

meiosis, but a sporic
m...
Animal gametes are formed directly
through meiosis.
There is nothing that could be compared to the gametophyte

in plants...
Plants undergo no gametic meiosis,
but a sporic meiosis.
The plants produces spores instead of gametes.
Gametophyte is f...
Germline
Animals

Plants

They set aside

No reproductive stem cells

reproductive stem cells in
early development.

are...
Animal species set aside reproductory stem
cells in early development.
This decreases the accumulation of mutation.
No reproductory stem cells are set
aside early in development in plants.
Some plants live still certain meristems or meri...
Morphogenesis
Animals

Plants

Distinct, complete body

Longer period of

shape

morphogenesis
Animals develop to a distinct, complete
body shape.
Some reorganization may take place during the animal life

stages.
I...
Plants go through a longer period of
morphogenesis.
Plants during their development do not head for a distinct

body plan...
Plasticity
Animals

Plants

They are determinated

Enormous plasticity in

early in development.

their development is
p...
Animal cells are determined early in
development
Animal cells developed into tissues but they are clearly

determined, bu...
Plants show an enormous plasticity in
their development.
Axillary meristems often grows out in order to substitute for

t...
Plant forms affected by environmental
conditions could be of:
Branching
2. Height
3. Relative Portions of Vegetative and R...
That amazing level of plasticity helps plants compensate for

their lack of mobility.
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Identifying developmental genes dev't biology

473 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
473
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Identifying developmental genes dev't biology

  1. 1. Identifying Developmental Genes Developmental Biology Report prepared by: John Michael P. Angelo Registered Professional Teacher SNCECM Math Coordinator MAT-Biology Student
  2. 2. Genes that are developing Animals Mouse (Mus musculus) Zebrafish (Danio reno) Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) C. elegans (Caenorhabditis elegans) African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) Chick (Gallus gallus domesticus) Plant Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) Maize (Zea mays L. spp. mays) Snapdragon (Antirrhinum) Petunia (Petunia hybrida) Physcomitrella patens (physcomitrella patens)
  3. 3. We can identify developmental genes by the following comparisons 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Multicellularity Cell movement Rigidity of the body shape Multicellular stages Meiosis Germline Morphogenesis Plasticity
  4. 4. Multicellularity The multicellularity of the animals and plants mechanisms is developed independently. Explanation: That mechanism in the comparison of the genes between the animals and plants makes up the body plan of plants and animals. While the homeobox and MADS box genes existed in last common ancestor, the MADS box gene plays the role of regulation of plant development while the homeobox genes are important in animals.
  5. 5. MADS-Box Genes This is a conserved sequence motif found in genes which comprise the MADS-box gene family. This box encodes the domain of DNA-binding MADS. This domain allows to bind DNA sequences of high similarity to the CC[A/T]6GG motif known as CArG-box. The domain of DNA-binding MADS are called transcription factors.
  6. 6. According to various researchers, the lengths of this box were in the range between 168 to 180 base pairs and that is the encoded MADS domain which has the length of 56 to 60 amino acids. The MADS domain is evolved, according to some evidences, that there is a sequence stretch of a type II topoisomerase (or cutting of both strands of the DNA helix simultaneously in order to manage DNA tangles and supercoils) in a common ancestor of all extant eukaryotes.
  7. 7. The name of the MADS-Box Genes M – MCM1 from the budding yeast A – Agamous from the thale cress D – Deficiens from the snapdragon S – SRF from the human Agamous – is a gene and transcription factor for the thale cress. SRF – also known as Serum response factor
  8. 8. Serum response factor It is a transcription factor that can be found in humans. It is considered very important especially in the development of the embryo as it has been linked to the formation of mesoderm.
  9. 9. Function In animals, they are involved in muscle development, cell proliferation and differentiation. This ranges from the pheromone response to arginine metabolism. 2. In plants, they are involved in controlling all major aspects of development especially in the development of gametophytes, embryo, seed, root, flower and fruits in both male and female. 1.
  10. 10. They have homeotic functions like the homeobox (or HOX) genes of animals. While Agamous and Deficiens for the plants participates in the determination of floral organ identity according to the ABC model of flower development. 4. The flowering time determination is also a factor in the MADS-box gene. It has been shown to have an important role in the integration of molecular flowering time pathways. 3.
  11. 11. The genes of the 4th function are essential for the timing of the flower bloom correctly and fertilization helps to ensure it at the time of the maximum reproductive potential.
  12. 12. Homeobox or Hox Genes They are a group of related genes that controls the body plan of the embryo along the anterior-posterior (or head-tail) axis. Properties: 1. Protein product is a transcription factor. 2. DNA sequence called homeobox is present 3. This are present in animals because of the same order of the expression along the head-tail axis of the developing animal.
  13. 13. Cell Movement Animals Plants Motile animal cells Positionally fixed plant cells
  14. 14. Animal cells are motile. The tissues may be folded and moved against each other easily. On the gastrulation of metazoan, triple layered system is built (first layer – entoderm, second layer – mesoderm, third layer – ectoderm) They may even move to other sites autonomously.
  15. 15. Plant cells are positionally fixed. They are trapped in cells which are filled with rigid walls that are made of cellulose which prevents the movement of cells and tissues. The plants form three basic tissue systems without gastrulation (1st layer – dermal, 2nd layer – ground and 3rd layer – vascular).
  16. 16. Rigidity of the body shape Animal Plants Body plan is clearly Highly regulated by the determined in most parts environment
  17. 17. Animal body plan is clearly determined in most parts. In different life stages, they are mostly clearly determined by its genes. If for example, they change their movement to another place or change their short and long term behaviour, the body plan may change.
  18. 18. Plant development is highly regulated by the environment. They are in variation and characterized by multiple times occurs also in iterative structures. The organ proportions and frequency may vary.
  19. 19. Multicellular stages Animals Plants One continuously They have haploid and multicellular stage diploid stages.
  20. 20. Animal life cycle is just one continuously multicellular stage Many animals undergo one or more transformation, when their body plan changes dramatically.
  21. 21. Life cycle of all plants have haploid and diploid stages. That life cycle is called alternation of generations. They are leading to two different body plants during their life cycle (sporophyte and gametophyte)
  22. 22. Meiosis Animals Plants Gametes are formed They undergo no gametic directly through meiosis. meiosis, but a sporic meiosis.
  23. 23. Animal gametes are formed directly through meiosis. There is nothing that could be compared to the gametophyte in plants.
  24. 24. Plants undergo no gametic meiosis, but a sporic meiosis. The plants produces spores instead of gametes. Gametophyte is first formed by mitotic divisions, then forms the gametes.
  25. 25. Germline Animals Plants They set aside No reproductive stem cells reproductive stem cells in early development. are set aside in the early development of plants.
  26. 26. Animal species set aside reproductory stem cells in early development. This decreases the accumulation of mutation.
  27. 27. No reproductory stem cells are set aside early in development in plants. Some plants live still certain meristems or meristem parts more inactive till the gametophyte is to be formed.
  28. 28. Morphogenesis Animals Plants Distinct, complete body Longer period of shape morphogenesis
  29. 29. Animals develop to a distinct, complete body shape. Some reorganization may take place during the animal life stages. In seldom cases, new structures will develop. Other animals develop stepwise into different shapes.
  30. 30. Plants go through a longer period of morphogenesis. Plants during their development do not head for a distinct body plan. Many plants grow and develop on and on till they die. Meristems which are areas of actively dividing undifferentiated cells allows for iterative growth and the formation of more and more new organs and structures during a plants life. Resemblance of embryonic stem cells in animals is present yet continually existing during adult life stages.
  31. 31. Plasticity Animals Plants They are determinated Enormous plasticity in early in development. their development is present.
  32. 32. Animal cells are determined early in development Animal cells developed into tissues but they are clearly determined, but in most cases, they are irreversibly determined. Most tissues regenerates from stem cells, however, occurs at some animal species like Ambystoma mexicanum.
  33. 33. Plants show an enormous plasticity in their development. Axillary meristems often grows out in order to substitute for the lost part. Strategies resembles the regeneration of the limb in some animals. Whole plants can be regenerated from single cells. Form of a plant is strongly affected by environmental factors such as light and temperature, results in great variety of morphologies from the same genotype.
  34. 34. Plant forms affected by environmental conditions could be of: Branching 2. Height 3. Relative Portions of Vegetative and Reproductive Structures 1.
  35. 35. That amazing level of plasticity helps plants compensate for their lack of mobility.

×