TOK Chs. 7-8, p. 237-257Team 1: 237-241Team 2: 242-246Team 3: 246-251Team 4: 251-257Team 5: Case Study 1Team 6: Case Study 2 Week 4: Ethical Reasoning PP: Team 1-3: Mill Team 4-6: Kant AIO: Gene Modification
Socratic Seminar• SS: TYFA selected ch. 1-3, 14-16 Discussion: – What did your section reveal about the nature of persuasion? – How might it interact with specific concepts of TOK? Why is persuasion a part of knowing and arguing?• AIO: Discrimination Discussion – Discuss your problems of Knowledge – Combine your problems into an overarching question for futher research? – How might the AIO topic be related to the TYFA readings?
Where are we Going?• Activity: Island Rescue – Definition of Ethics through concept clarification modeling• Warrants (Toulmin) – Presuppositions and challenges• 6 categories of Ethical Knowing• Blog: Ethical Agents
What is Ethics? Rescue Activity• Situation, you are stranded on Primavera Island in the “Ring of Fire”• Due to volcanic activity, there is a record tsunami that will make landfall in 10 minutes. Causalities are expected to be absolute.• Mr. Morris is the pilot of the only F77 to successfully reach land in time to make a rescue.• Normally, the helicopter can carry only six passengers, but it is thought that it could be overloaded to the maximum of eight. (7 passengers plus the pilot)
What is Ethics? Rescue Activity• Consider the people and make a case for who should be on the helicopter.• You must come to agreement about 7 survivors.
What is Ethics? Rescue Activity Breakdown1. Whom did you select to survive?2. What were your reasons for thechoices?3. How much agreement anddisagreement did you find amongyour choices?4. What values do the choicesreflect?5. How do you feel about yourselvesin relation to this exercise?6. Did you use rationalizations toavoid making the decisions in thislearning activity?7. What working definition can we make about Ethics from thisactivity?
Why Ethical Reasoning?1. Ethics makes clear to us why one act is better than another2. Ethics contributes an orderly social life by providing humanity some basis for agreement, understanding some principles or rules of procedure3. Moral conduct and ethical systems, both of the past and the present, must be intelligently appraised and criticized.4. Ethics seeks to point out to men the true values of life
Warrants Towards Ethical Reasoning• Two basic assumptions of Ethical Reasoning: – Man is a rational being – Man is free to make choices• How might the goal and method of ethics change if one or both of these presuppositions were shown to be false?
The Objects of Ethical Reasoning• The doer of the action (The subject)• The action done – Formal Object of Ethics is the Action, not the subject.• How might the emphasis on one object or the other effect ethical reasoning? What is the functional difference between “morality” and “ethics”?
The Spectrum of Ethical Reasoning• Consequentialist • Non-consequentialist (Deontological) Ethics (Teleological) Ethics – Ethical Actions have moral, – Ethical Actions have categorical imperatives consequences – If everyone were to do this – Do the consequences result action, would the resulting in a positive outcome? world be rational? (queue allegory) – How many people benefit? How many people are – Ethical Actions participate in rational truths despite hurt? consequences. – Are more benefiting than – Nay/Horray judgement on the hurting? action itself
External v. Internal Ethical Reasoning• External: • Internal: – Ethical actions are a result – Called “Virtue Ethics”. of the cultural, societal, – Focusing on the Subject, not the religious, and political action (i.e. “be an honest person”) evolution of group identity – Philosophical roots in Socrates – One does the “right” and Aristotle action in order to belong. – Do “right” actions because one – What other reasons would must have “right” ethical one do “right” in this character. category? What other reasons would one want to do “right” in this category?
Practical v. Theoretical Ethics• Practical Ethics Involves the Application of reasoning in a complex society – Often results in an imperfect synthesis of various theories• Theoretical Ethics is meant to practice reasoning within general frameworks.• How might these two categories be associated with the theories of truth?
Blog Activity: Other Categories?• What might be some other categories of Ethical reasoning?• Consider two ethical characters throughout history, one that operates under a category we discussed, and one that operates under a category we have not. Identify and explain both.