Today in ScienceYou will Need:•Pencil, Colored Pencils, Highlighters orMarkers•Power Notes – Atomic Structure– 2 page 4sides-Bookshelf- Please Staple•SAS Curriculum- Density #11 – Due NOW
Topic:Power Notes- AtomicStructureDo we understandeverything????
Democritus 400 BC • 1st idea of “atoms” Greece - stated that all matter is made up • Believed all matter is made of atoms. He also stated that atoms are up of tiny particles separated eternal and invisible and so small that they can’t be divided, by space and they entirely fill up the space they’re • Named particles “atomos” in which means indivisible.Lavoisier 1789 • Founder of modern chemistry France - provided the formula for the conservation of matter • 1st carefully controlled in chemical reactions, and also distinguished experiments providing between an element and a compound evidence to the Law of Conservation of Mass
Dalton 1766-1844 1st MODERN Atomic Theory England - formed the 1st atomic theory, •All matter made up of tiny which states that all matter is composed of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms indivisible particles called atoms that are all alike and have the same atomic weight. •Atoms of the same element have identical properties •Atoms of different elements have different properties •Atoms combine in a specific ratio to form compounds •A specific compound is always made up of atoms in a specific proportion.
Thomson 1897 Plum Pudding Model 2.Negative particles scrambled into the “dough” of the positive particles. England - discovered the electron and developed the plum- pudding model of the atom.Rutherford 1898 Gold Foil Experiment England - used the •Atoms are mostly empty space results of his gold-foil experiment to state that all the mass of an •All the Mass of an atom is in atom was in a small positively-charged the positively charged ball in the center of the structure. ball at the center of the atom.
Bohr 1922 Denmark - stated that “Planetary” atom model the electrons moved 2.Believed the atom structure was like our around the nucleus in successively large solar system: nucleus in the middle like orbits. He also presented the Bohr the sun and the electrons orbiting like the atomic model which planets. stated that atoms absorb or emit radiation only when the electrons abruptly jump between allowed, or stationary, states. Schrödinger (Schroedinger ) Wave Mechanic Model1930 Austria - introduced the •Planetary model was too specific Shroedinger Equation, a wave equation that •Rather: electrons vibrate around the describes the form of the probability waves that outside of the nucleus- can only govern the motion of small particles and how predict where they are most like to be these waves are altered •QUARKS – protons, neutrons and by external influences. electrons made up of some of these smaller particles. •http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/01087/quarks.html
Basic Atomic Structure Today scientists agree on the three basic subatomic particles that make up all atoms.Bohr Model for Lithium(not to scale) Electron = 3 P= 3 + N = 3 0Where is most of the mass in the NUCLEUSAtom?Where is most of the volume in the Outside the Nucleus; ElectronAtom? Cloud
Nucleus • Contains protons(+) and Neutrons (0) • Holds most of the mass of the atom • Very small compared to the entire size of the atom • Most dense part of the atomElectron • Negatively charged subatomic particle • Found outside the nucleus in the electron cloud • Smallest particle; mass = 1/1836th of the atom
Proton • Positively charged subatomic particle • Found in the nucleus • Mass = 1 amu (atomic mass unit) • # of protons in an atom IDENTIFIES the atom (which element) • # of protons in the nucleus of an atom called the atomic number Neutron • Zero charge • Mass = 1 amu • Do NOT affect the identity of the atom • Found in the nucleus • Same atom of an element can have varying amounts of neutrons (isotope) • Adding the total number of protons & neutrons = Atomic Mass Numberhttp://www.sawyerscience.com/Units/unit2/atoms_compounds.html
All atoms found on the • Neutral – same # of protons(+) andPeriodic Table are # of electrons(-)Isotope • Atoms of the same element with same number of protons and different number of neutrons. nucleus nucleus ProtonHydrogen has 3 naturaloccurring ISOTOPES:Protium, Deuterium and Protium nucleus DeuteriumTritium are Neutro All ROGEN have n l HYD use al Tritium a bec oton. r 1 p
Atomic MASS • On the Periodic Table represents a weighted average of the mass of all naturally occurring isotopes of each element. (based on mass and abundance of each isotope). • When atoms gain or lose electronsIONS they become charged. (number of protons (+) and electrons (-) particles are NOT EQUAL)REVIEW & REFLECT + -
Coloring the Periodic • Outline each box in the followingTable way: • Metalloids – in BLUE • Nonmetals – in ORANGE*Textbook pg 196-197 – Use the • Metals – in GREENkey
Homework Power Notes– Due by Friday (There is time to work in class tomorrow)Do You see HOW the periodic tableand the Atomic Structure areRELATED?