Electrons and chemical bonding spring 2014 day 1

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Electrons and chemical bonding spring 2014 day 1

  1. 1. You Will Need: 1. Pencil, Text Book- Periodic Table, Colored Pencils 2. Ionic & Covalent Bonding 2 pages- 4 sides (Pick-up from bookshelf) 4. Log #3 Update 5. Counting Total Atoms + Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Review– Due Today
  2. 2. You will need 100 3 x 5 cards 1. Print out Questions & Answers hyperlinked on Learning Point • Glue, Staple or Tape Questions on the Front and Answers on the back OR • You can write out the questions & answers 2. Due at the beginning of class on Friday 3. Quiz on Friday
  3. 3. 1. The substances on the left side of a periodic table are most likely this class of elements…. 2. Which subatomic particle determines the charge of the atom? 3. The scientist who believed the atomic structure resembled the solar system? 4. The least reactive elements on the Periodic Table are the ______________. 5. The type of electrons that determine how an atom will bond to another atom are the ___________________.
  4. 4. 6. The subatomic particle responsible for determining the atom you are looking at are the ____________. 7. Why are elements’ atoms on the periodic table neutral? 8. When an element’s atomic structure has more or less neutrons we call this an ______. 9. What is the valence of Nitrogen? How do you know? 10. How many more electron bonds would Nitrogen need to have a full outer shell?
  5. 5. Timer Designers: In charge of today’s lesson on the computer (R & R Required) Everything on this planet is made of atoms from elements. Even though the number of elements on the Periodic Table is limited, joining the elements in different ways allows you to make a huge number of combinations. Chemical Bonding is the joining of atoms to form new substances. The properties of these new substances are different from the properties of the original elements. When chemical bonds form, electrons are shared, gained or lost.
  6. 6. Everything on this planet is made of atoms from elements. Even though the number of elements on the Periodic Table is limited, joining the elements in different ways allows you to make a huge number of combinations. Chemical Bonding is the joining of atoms to form new substances. The properties of these new substances are different from the properties of the original elements. When chemical bonds form, electrons are shared, gained or lost. Understanding the electron configuration, (Electron Dot,) for each atom will help you understand how different elements will bond or not bond with other elements. Need to Know!
  7. 7. Not all the electrons in an atom are used to make chemical bonds. It is the electrons on Outer-Most Level or VALENCE electrons, (Electron-Dot) that determine how an atom will react (bond). REMEMBER: You can use your periodic table to determine valence values for most elements. Atoms want to be “happy” or stable….if they have a full outer shell. Atoms that have fewer than eight valence electrons usually form bonds. The only time a full shell is equal to 2 if for the element Helium.
  8. 8. Element Bohr Model Lewis Dot (Symbol + Valence) Lithium Atomic # Atomic Mass – Atomic # Neon Atomic # Atomic Mass – Atomic # Row = Electrons= Protons = Neutrons = 2 3- 3+ 7-3= 4 P = 3 N = 4 2 1 Li Row = Electrons= Protons = Neutrons = P =10 N =10 Ne 2 10- 10+ 20-10 10 2 8 valence valence
  9. 9. Element Group Valence Bond or Not Bond Hydrogen 1 1 Bond Magnesium Oxygen Sulfur Krypton Lithium Carbon
  10. 10. Compound Lewis Dot Bonding Config. Type of Bond and Why? Sodium Fluoride (NaF) Diatomic Fluoride (F2) Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) Watch the video clip on Covalent & Ionic Bonding (hyperlinked on Learning Point)
  11. 11. Question Answer Ion • Charged atom • Caused by a transfer (lose or gain) or shared electron What are the characteristics of Ionic Bonds? • Usually between Metals and Nonmetals • Transfer of electrons – atoms become IONS • Form Crystal Lattices • Brittle • High melting and boiling points • Dissolve easily in water • Form compounds • Specific shape
  12. 12. Crystal Lattice
  13. 13. Question Answer What are the characteristics of Ionic Bonds? • Usually between Metals and Nonmetals • Transfer of electrons – atoms become IONS • Form Crystal Lattices • Brittle • High melting and boiling points • Dissolve easily in water • Form compounds • Specific shape Illustrate a neutrally charged Bohr Model of an aluminum atom. Before you move to the next slide….try to draw this on your own and then check to see how you did. If you made a mistake….figure out what you did incorrectly.
  14. 14. Question Answer What are the characteristics of Ionic Bonds? • Usually between Metals and Nonmetals • Transfer of electrons – atoms become IONS • Form Crystal Lattices • Brittle • High melting and boiling points • Dissolve easily in water • Form compounds • Specific shape Illustrate a neutrally charged Bohr Model of an aluminum atom. P=13 N=14 2 8 3
  15. 15. Question Answer Illustrate a positively charged Bohr Model of an aluminum atom. (3+) Before you move onto the next slide….try to draw this on your own.
  16. 16. Question Answer Illustrate a positively charged Bohr Model of an aluminum atom. (3+) Why is Al3+ considered an ion? (Look at all the subatomic particles before you answer this question.) P=13 N=14 2 8
  17. 17. Forming Sodium Chloride http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2mzDwgyk6QM Before (pg. 233) After Questions: 1) Why does Sodium become an Ion? 2) Is it Positive or Negative? Why? 3) Why does Chlorine become an Ion? 4) Is it Positive or Negative? Why? Questions: 1) Why do Sodium and Chlorine bond? 2) What is the overall charge of the compound? 3) Does NaCl have the same characteristics as Na and Cl? 4) What are some unique characteristics of NaCl?
  18. 18. Question Answer Characteristics of Covalent bonds • Valance electrons are shared • More often between nonmetal • Low melting and boiling point • Free flowing but can be brittle • Form molecules • Usually do not have a specific shape - flexible View Video – Covalent Bonding – hyperlinked on Learning Point. http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=1wpDicW_MQ Q How many types of covalent bonds are shown in the video clip? ______
  19. 19. C6H10O5 C12H22O11
  20. 20. Molecule Illustration Explanation Electron Dot (Color Code each element) 1. What kind of bond does Hydrogen & Oxygen make? 2. How do you know? 3. Why does one Oxygen bond with two Hydrogen atoms? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ulyopnxjAZ8&feature=relmfu Drawing Lewis Dot Diagram Bonds P=8 N=8 P=1 N=0 P=1 N=0
  21. 21. P=8 N=8 P=1 N=0 P=1 N=0 How do we determine the type of bond in a compound? • Identify class of elements • Same class usually covalent • Opposite class usually ionic • Calculate the electronegativity factor What is ELECTRONEGATIVITY? A measure of how much an element wants an electron How do you know the electronegativity factor of an element? Look it up (see next slide) What are the determining values for each type of bond? 0-0.4 = Non-polar covalent .41-2.0 = Polar covalent >2.0 = Ionic http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7DjsD7Hcd9U
  22. 22. http://www.tutor-homework.com/Chemistry_Help/electronegativity_table/electronegativity.html ELECTRONEGATIVITY VALUES 0-0.4 = Non-polar covalent .41-2.0 = Polar covalent >2.0 = Ionic
  23. 23. Let’s try a couple: P=8 N=8 P=1 N=0 P=1 N=0 H2O Calculate the electronegativity factor H = 2.2 O = 3.44 3.44 – 2.2 = 1.24 NaCl 0-0.4 = Non-polar covalent .41-2.0 = Polar covalent >2.0 = Ionic Polar Covalent Ionic Na = .93 Cl = 3.16 3.16 - .93 = 2.23
  24. 24. Homework: 1)Ionic and Covalent Bonding – Due Monday at the end of the period 2)STAR Cards #31-30 – on 3x5 cards – Due Tomorrow at the beginning of class

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