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On the Development of Computational Th...
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(cc) 2018 Jes´us Moreno Le´on
Some rig...
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On the development of computational thinking skills in schools through computer programming with Scratch

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On the development of computational thinking skills in schools through computer programming with Scratch

  1. 1. 1/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions On the Development of Computational Thinking Skills in Schools through Computer Programming with Scratch Author: Jes´us Moreno-Le´on Director: Gregorio Robles Doctoral Program on Information Technology and Communications International Doctoral School Madrid, March 15th, 2018 Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  2. 2. 2/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions (cc) 2018 Jes´us Moreno Le´on Some rights reserved. This work licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. To view a copy of full license, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ or write to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA. Some of the figures have been taken from the Internet Source, and author and licence if known, is specified. For those images, fair use applies. Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  3. 3. 3/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Computer programming and CT in schools Tools to introduce CT in education It’s all just a little bit of history repeating? Motivation Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  4. 4. 4/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Computer programming and CT in schools Tools to introduce CT in education It’s all just a little bit of history repeating? Coding in schools One of the main trends in the educational landscape worldwide Code to learn vs learn to code Huge disparity of criteria in terms of target ages, approaches, methodologies... Lack of standarization due to the lack of research in this field Urgent attention from academia is required: assessment, transference and affecting factors Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  5. 5. 5/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Computer programming and CT in schools Tools to introduce CT in education It’s all just a little bit of history repeating? Five broad categories of technologies Unplugged Arrow-based visual environments Block-based visual environments Textual programming languages Connected with the physical world Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  6. 6. 6/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Computer programming and CT in schools Tools to introduce CT in education It’s all just a little bit of history repeating? Which technologies are using educators at schools? Figure: Programming languages taught at primary and middle schools (blue) and secondary/high schools (gray) [Sentance, 2015]. Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  7. 7. 7/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Computer programming and CT in schools Tools to introduce CT in education It’s all just a little bit of history repeating? Scratch statistics Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  8. 8. 8/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Computer programming and CT in schools Tools to introduce CT in education It’s all just a little bit of history repeating? The pioneers Logo programming language Developed in the 1960s Millions of students learnt to program at school during the 1970s and 80s “Disappeared” from the educational landscape since mid-90s Seymour Papert’s picture: jgora.net Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  9. 9. 9/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Computer programming and CT in schools Tools to introduce CT in education It’s all just a little bit of history repeating? Worrying signs from England “Only a small fraction of pupils choose, or have the option to choose, to take qualifications at GCSE (5.5%) or A level (1.7%)” “teachers just do not have the knowledge to teach this subject” “computer science could become a niche subject, taught in only a few schools” Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  10. 10. 10/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Goals of this thesis Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  11. 11. 11/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions The three pillars of the thesis Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  12. 12. 12/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Research questions 1 Is it possible to automatically assess the development of CT skills by inspecting learners’ Scratch creations? 2 Does the development of CT skills through programming activities with Scratch enhance the learning of other subjects? 3 Are there social and non-cognitive factors affecting the development of CT skills when programming with Scratch? Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  13. 13. 13/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions What is CT? On the quest for assessing CT Code to learn? Social factors of computational thinking Background Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  14. 14. 14/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions What is CT? On the quest for assessing CT Code to learn? Social factors of computational thinking Seymour Papert’s Mindstorms “[...] Their visions of how to integrate computational thinking into everyday life was insufficiently developed. But there will be more tries, and more and more. And eventually, somewhere, all the pieces will come together and it will catch.” Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  15. 15. 15/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions What is CT? On the quest for assessing CT Code to learn? Social factors of computational thinking Wing’s seminal paper “CT involves solving problems, designing systems, and understanding human behavior, by drawing on the concepts fundamental to computer science.” Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  16. 16. 16/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions What is CT? On the quest for assessing CT Code to learn? Social factors of computational thinking Text network analysis of CT definitions: main topics and influential keywords Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  17. 17. 17/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions What is CT? On the quest for assessing CT Code to learn? Social factors of computational thinking Text network analysis of CT definitions: influential communities of words Cluster Words in the context Color 1 problem, process, solve, formulate SpringGreen 2 computer, concept, approach, tool Blue 3 abstraction, simulation, information, data Lime 4 thinking, decomposition, logic, debugging Fuchsia 5 algorithm, perform, systematically, efficiently Yellow Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  18. 18. 18/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions What is CT? On the quest for assessing CT Code to learn? Social factors of computational thinking Categories of CT assessment tools Summative Formative Skill-transfer Attitudes Vocabulary Aptitudinal Content CT-test Fairy A. REACT Bebras CTS Language CA test Concepts Quizly CTP-Quiz MBPA Israel NCV CTSiM Practices Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  19. 19. 19/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions What is CT? On the quest for assessing CT Code to learn? Social factors of computational thinking Summative-aptitudinal CT assessment tools Figure: Sample of a CT-test item [Rom´an-Gonz´alez, 2015]. Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  20. 20. 20/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions What is CT? On the quest for assessing CT Code to learn? Social factors of computational thinking Formative, iterative CT assessment tools Figure: CTP-Graph of a Centipede game [Koh et al., 2010]. Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  21. 21. 21/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions What is CT? On the quest for assessing CT Code to learn? Social factors of computational thinking Formative, iterative CT assessment tools Tool Language Audience State REACT Agent Sheets Teachers In production Quizly App Inventor Teachers and students In production NCV Scratch Students Under evaluation Practices Blockly Students In development Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  22. 22. 22/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions What is CT? On the quest for assessing CT Code to learn? Social factors of computational thinking Transference to other domains In Mindstorms, Papert posited that programming activities with Logo would help students develop abilities that they would be able to transfer to other non-coding scenarios The impact of programming on learning other subjects was intensively investigated during the 1980s and early 1990s with promising results Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  23. 23. 23/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions What is CT? On the quest for assessing CT Code to learn? Social factors of computational thinking Different tools, different results? New visual languages aim to overcome the limitations of textual languages: Syntax difficulties Lack of variety of products Solitude of the learning context A new wave of research should be carried out to check if previous results are replicated and to provide evidence on emerging questions Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  24. 24. 24/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions What is CT? On the quest for assessing CT Code to learn? Social factors of computational thinking Lonely and isolated programmers? Programmers do not like social interactions Relationships between programming abilities and introversion (1980s and 90s) Social software development sites like GitHub and GitLab New research proves that extroversion and social participation correlate with programming skills Background picture: pogdesign.co.uk Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  25. 25. 25/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions What is CT? On the quest for assessing CT Code to learn? Social factors of computational thinking Collaboration in Scratch “They give feedback through comments on projects, they work together on joint projects, they remix one another’s projects, they crowd-source artwork for their projects, they create tutorials to share their knowledge with one another”[Resnick, 2012] Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  26. 26. 26/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions What is CT? On the quest for assessing CT Code to learn? Social factors of computational thinking Effects of participating in the community Positive consequences that partnership produces on the elaboration of the projects created by young learners (3 cases) Collaboration promoted an enhancement of the quality of the projects (5 cases) New research making use of much larger samples is required to state stronger conclusions in this regard Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  27. 27. 27/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions What is CT? On the quest for assessing CT Code to learn? Social factors of computational thinking The non-cognitive side of CT Some CT definitions introduce non-cognitive aspects as an important part of these skills The nomological network of CT has not been totally established New investigations must study whether and which non-cognitive factors underlie CT aiming to optimize its development in education Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  28. 28. 28/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Methodology and results Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  29. 29. 29/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Methodology Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  30. 30. 30/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT A formative assessment tool for Scratch projects Could we create a lint-like tool to support learners and educators? Dr. Scratch, inspired by Scrape and is based on Hairball Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  31. 31. 31/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Free software - standing on the shoulders of giants Total Physical Source Lines of Code 1,809 Dominant language Python Schedule Estimate, Months 4.42 Estimated Average Number of Developers 1.01 Total Estimated Cost to Develop $50,345 Table: Estimated effort for the development of the Hairball fork (using the basic COCOMO estimation model [Boehm et al., 2000]). Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  32. 32. 32/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT First step: extending the features of Hairball Plug-ins to detect bad programming habits 1 Characters that use the default, non-meaningful name that Scratch assigns to new objects 2 Repetition of code Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  33. 33. 33/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Bad/default naming of sprites Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  34. 34. 34/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Repetition of code Example of repeated code Solution to avoid repeated code Blocks should be created to avoid repetition of code Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  35. 35. 35/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Scratch projects repository analysis Default names Duplicated scripts Defined blocks Projects 79 62 17 Mean 5.94 7.23 1.11 Median 3 2 0 Maximum 67 71 25 Table: Analysis of 100 ramdonly downloaded Scratch projects Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  36. 36. 36/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Second step: development of the CT assessment feature Remixing other researchers’ ideas New frameworks for studying and assessing the development of CT [Brennan and Resnick, 2012]. Progression of Early CT Model [Seiter and Foreman, 2013]. Evaluation of games to gauge understanding of programming concepts [Wilson et al., 2012]. Towards the Automatic Recognition of CT for Adaptive Visual Language Learning [Koh et al., 2010]. Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  37. 37. 37/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Assessment of CT CT dimension Basic Developing Proficient Data representation modifiers of sprites properties operations on vars operations on lists Logical Thinking if if else logic operations User interactivity green flag key pressed, sprite clicked, ask and wait, mouse blocks when %s is >%s, video, audio Algotithmic notions of flow control sequence of blocks repeat, forever repeat until Abstraction and problem decomposi- tion more than one script and more than one sprite def block when I start as clone Parallelism Two scripts on green flag Two scripts on key pressed, two scripts on sprite clicked on the same sprite Two scripts on when I receive message, two scripts when %s is >%s, two scripts on when backdrop change to Synchronization wait Broadcast, when I re- ceive message, stop all, stop program, stop programs sprite wait until, when backdrop change to, broadcast and wait Table: Level of development for each CT dimension Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  38. 38. 38/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Assessment of CT: Logical Thinking Different levels of development of logical thinking: basic (top), developing (center) and proficient (bottom). Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  39. 39. 39/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Assessment of CT: an example Evaluation of Catch me if you can (available at https://scratch.mit.edu/projects/138397021/) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  40. 40. 40/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Assessment of CT: an example Evaluation of Catch me if you can (available at https://scratch.mit.edu/projects/138397021/) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  41. 41. 41/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Web-based service: Dr. Scratch Alpha version of the tool, presented during the Scratch Conference 2014 at the MIT (Cambridge, MA, USA) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  42. 42. 42/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Web-based service: Dr. Scratch Present version of the tool, developed after the Google RISE Award 2015 Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  43. 43. 43/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Web-based service: Dr. Scratch Feedback report Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  44. 44. 44/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Web-based service: Dr. Scratch Ideas to improve the score Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  45. 45. 45/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Validation Process Ecological validity Convergent validity Discriminant validity Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  46. 46. 46/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Validation Process: Ecological Validity (I) Ecological validity Are young learners able to analyze their projects and independently learn from the tips that the tool provides? Workshops with over 100 students (10 to 14 years) in 8 schools Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  47. 47. 47/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Validation Process: Ecological Validity (II) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  48. 48. 48/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Validation Process: Ecological Validity (and III) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  49. 49. 49/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Validation Process: Convergent Validity (I) Convergent validity Comparison of the evaluations provided by Dr. Scratch with other measurements of similar constructs (Human) expert evaluators Software engineering complexity metrics Background picture: Joanna Bourne Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  50. 50. 50/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Validation Process: Convergent Validity (II) Comparison with human experts Programming contest for students (Google, FECyT) Jury: 16 experts in computer science education 4 groups of evaluators, average years of experience with Scratch: 3.5 to 4 years 53 projects, 450 evaluations Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  51. 51. 51/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Validation Process: Convergent Validity (III) Scatter plot for experts evaluation (x-axis) and Dr. Scratch assessment (y-axis). Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  52. 52. 52/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Validation Process: Convergent Validity (IV) Metric Value Cyclomatic complexity 3 Vocabulary 14 Length 14 Volume 66.42 Difficulty 53.30 Effort 293.86 Implementation of CC and Halstead’s analyzer for Scratch projects Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  53. 53. 53/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Validation Process: Convergent Validity (V) Scatter plot for Dr. Scratch assessment (x-axis) and Cyclomatic Complexity (y-axis). Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  54. 54. 54/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Validation Process: Convergent Validity (and VI) Scatter plot for Dr. Scratch assessment (x-axis) and Halstead’s vocabulary (y-axis). Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  55. 55. 55/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Validation Process: Discriminant Validity (I) Discriminant validity Projects shared in the Scratch repository are categorized under one or more project types: games, animations, music, art and stories. Is Dr. Scratch able to detect differences in the CT dimensions developed when programming different types of projects? Background picture: Bodie Pyndus Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  56. 56. 56/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Validation Process: Discriminant Validity (II) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  57. 57. 57/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Validation Process: Discriminant Validity (and III) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  58. 58. 58/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Methodology Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  59. 59. 59/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Coding in the English classroom (I) The study Quasi-Experimental Design 65 students, 4th and 5th graders Control groups and experimental groups Pre and Post tests Surveys Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  60. 60. 60/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Coding in the English classroom (II) Scratch helped me to learn English Scratch made me want to learn more English Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  61. 61. 61/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Coding in the English classroom (III) Experimental group Control group Initial test 5.05 5.13 Final test 7.7 7.55 Improvement 2.65 2.42 Table: Pre-test and Post-test results Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  62. 62. 62/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Coding in the English classroom (and IV) 4th grade Teacher with coding experience 5th grade First-time programmer teacher Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  63. 63. 63/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Coding in the Maths classroom (I) The study Quasi-Experimental Design 42 students, 6th grade Control groups and experimental groups Pre and Post tests 3 months Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  64. 64. 64/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Coding in the Maths classroom (II) Mathematical processes investigated Modeling of processes and reality phenomena Reasoning (making predictions and justifying arguments) Problem formulation and problem solving Exercising (comparison and execution of procedures and algorithms) Following guidelines set by the Ministry of National Education of Colombia Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  65. 65. 65/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Coding in the Maths classroom (III) Pre-test. Mean and deviation for control (left) and experimental (right) groups. Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  66. 66. 66/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Coding in the Maths classroom (IV) Post-test. Mean and deviation for control (left) and experimental (right) groups. Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  67. 67. 67/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Coding in the Maths classroom (and V) Post-test comparison. Means obtained for the control and experimental groups by mathematical process. Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  68. 68. 68/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Comparing three quasi-experimental research designs (I) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  69. 69. 69/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Comparing three quasi-experimental research designs (II) School Grade n (control) n (exp.) Subject Coraz´on de Mar´ıa 6th 26 25 Math La Jota 6th 25 24 Social studies La Inmaculada 2nd 15 14 Language arts Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  70. 70. 70/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Comparing three quasi-experimental research designs (III) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  71. 71. 71/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Comparing three quasi-experimental research designs (IV) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  72. 72. 72/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Comparing three quasi-experimental research designs (V) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  73. 73. 73/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Comparing three quasi-experimental research designs (and VI) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  74. 74. 74/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Methodology Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  75. 75. 75/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT How socialization affects the learning of coding skills (I) Data set of public activity in the Scratch online community during its first five years of activity (2007–2012) 1,056,951 users 1,928,699 projects 120,097 galleries 1,313,200 friends 7,788,414 comments in projects Background picture: xkl Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  76. 76. 76/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT How socialization affects the learning of coding skills (II) Measuring the sophistication of the projects from three points of view: Breadth: range of different features that programmers use Depth: amount with which programmers use those features Finesse: user’s ability to solve programming problems effectively and creatively Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  77. 77. 77/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT How socialization affects the learning of coding skills (III) Sociability is measured as the sum of the social actions: number of favorites, galleries, friends and comments Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  78. 78. 78/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT How socialization affects the learning of coding skills (IV) 4 groups of users using the quartiles of the the number of days that they spend in the community Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  79. 79. 79/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT How socialization affects the learning of coding skills (V) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  80. 80. 80/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT How socialization affects the learning of coding skills (VI) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  81. 81. 81/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT How socialization affects the learning of coding skills (VII) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  82. 82. 82/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Non-cognitive factors of CT (I) The study Correlations between CT, self-efficacy and the dimensions of the Big Five model of personality: Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. 1,251 students from 24 schools, enrolled in CS from 5th to 10th grade CTt [Rom´an-Gonz´alez, 2015] and some additional self-efficacy items 99 students took the Big Five Questionnaire-Children version [Barbaranelli et al., 2003] Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  83. 83. 83/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Non-cognitive factors of CT (II) As expected, positive correlations with Openness and Conscientiousness Unexpectedly, positive correlation with Extraversion Positive correlation with CT-Self efficacy (medium size difference in favor of males) Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  84. 84. 84/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Non-cognitive factors of CT (and III) Nomological network of CT including cognitive and non-cognitive factors Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  85. 85. 85/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions Development and validation of Dr. Scratch CT across the curriculum Social and non-cognitive factors of CT Summary of results Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  86. 86. 86/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions An assessment tool for the community Evidence for educators and policy makers Future research Conclusions Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  87. 87. 87/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions An assessment tool for the community Evidence for educators and policy makers Future research Who is using Dr. Scratch? Learners and educators from all over the world: over 214,000 analyzed projects since August 2015 Scholars: To analyze students’ performance To assess teachers’ CT and programming skills To find code smells and quality issues To validate other tools As part of an evaluation framework Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  88. 88. 88/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions An assessment tool for the community Evidence for educators and policy makers Future research Transference of CT across the K-12 curriculum School level: differences based on the age of the students School subject: simple vs complex subjects Teacher training: great impact Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  89. 89. 89/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions An assessment tool for the community Evidence for educators and policy makers Future research Social and non-cognitive factors affecting CT Educators could choose between platforms for learning to program based on their social and software evolution features The one-size-fits-all approach is leaving some students, especially adolescent girls, behind A diversity of computing contexts must be offered Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  90. 90. 90/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions An assessment tool for the community Evidence for educators and policy makers Future research Future Work (I) Validation of Dr. Scratch: Factorial validity. Simplification of the feedback report? Face validity. Survey for over 500 educators? Integration of CT across the curriculum: more research is needed to state stronger conclusions Social factors affecting programming and CT: a controlled experiment is needed to consider causality Background picture: Simon Cunningham Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  91. 91. 91/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions An assessment tool for the community Evidence for educators and policy makers Future research Future Work (and II) Background picture: mountainmadness.com Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  92. 92. 92/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions On the Development of Computational Thinking Skills in Schools through Computer Programming with Scratch Jes´us Moreno-Le´on Doctoral Program on Information Technology and Communications International Doctoral School Madrid, March 15th, 2018 Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  93. 93. 93/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions References I Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., Rabasca, A., and Pastorelli, C. (2003). A questionnaire for measuring the big five in late childhood. Personality and Individual Differences, 34(4):645–664. Boehm, B. W., Madachy, R., Steece, B., et al. (2000). Software cost estimation with Cocomo II with Cdrom. Prentice Hall PTR. Brennan, K. and Resnick, M. (2012). New frameworks for studying and assessing the development of computational thinking. In Proceedings of the 2012 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, Canada, pages 1–25. Koh, K. H., Basawapatna, A., Bennett, V., and Repenning, A. (2010). Towards the automatic recognition of computational thinking for adaptive visual language learning. In 2010 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, pages 59–66. Resnick, M. (2012). Mother’s day, warrior cats, and digital fluency: Stories from the Scratch online community. In Proceedings of the Constructionism 2012 Conference: Theory, Practice and Impact, pages 52–58. Rom´an-Gonz´alez, M. (2015). Computational thinking test: Design guidelines and content validation. In Proceedings of the 7th Annual International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN 2015), pages 2436–2444. Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch
  94. 94. 94/94 Motivation Goals of this thesis Background Methodology and results Conclusions References II Seiter, L. and Foreman, B. (2013). Modeling the learning progressions of computational thinking of primary grade students. In Proceedings of the Ninth Annual International ACM Conference on International Computing Education Research, ICER ’13, pages 59–66, New York, NY, USA. ACM. Sentance, S. (2015). Annual national survey 2015: Results. Technical report, Computing At School. Wilson, A., Hainey, T., and Connolly, T. (2012). Evaluation of computer games developed by primary school children to gauge understanding of programming concepts. In European Conference on Games Based Learning, page 549. Academic Conferences International Limited. Jes´us Moreno-Le´on CT in schools through programming with Scratch

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