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I’m	
  here	
  to	
  say	
  a	
  bit	
  about	
  the	
  future	
  of	
  the	
  research	
  university	
  library.	
  	
  T...
He	
  had	
  a	
  stroke	
  on	
  28	
  December	
  1384,	
  and	
  died	
  on	
  the	
  very	
  last	
  day	
  of	
  that...
44	
  years	
  later,	
  Pope	
  MarAn	
  V	
  ordered	
  Wycliffe’s	
  body	
  exhumed	
  from	
  consecrated	
  
ground.	...
His	
  English-­‐language	
  Bible	
  was	
  handwriben,	
  by	
  scribes.	
  	
  A	
  few	
  copies	
  were	
  made.	
  	...
About	
  90	
  years	
  later,	
  an	
  unknown	
  German	
  friar	
  wrote	
  a	
  criAque	
  of	
  the	
  Catholic	
  
C...
as	
  a	
  handwriben	
  leber	
  to	
  his	
  archbishop,	
  protesAng	
  the	
  sale	
  of	
  indulgences	
  and	
  othe...
“Why,	
  anybody	
  can	
  have	
  a	
  brain….But	
  you,	
  Luther,	
  have	
  one	
  thing	
  that	
  others	
  did	
  ...
Protestant	
  ReformaAon	
  
Renaissance	
  
ScienAfic	
  RevoluAon	
  
	
  
Wow.	
  	
  
8	
  
These	
  social	
  transformaAons,	
  played	
  out	
  over	
  several	
  hundred	
  years,	
  caused	
  most	
  
major	
 ...
The	
  Thirty	
  Years	
  War	
  emerged	
  from	
  the	
  Protestant-­‐Catholic	
  conflict,	
  and	
  devastated	
  
Euro...
Gutenberg’s	
  press	
  changed	
  the	
  world	
  through	
  the	
  simplest	
  of	
  technological	
  
advances:	
  it	
...
The	
  fourth	
  Renaissance	
  began	
  about	
  100	
  years	
  before	
  Gutenberg,	
  in	
  northern	
  Italy.	
  	
  ...
As	
  if	
  the	
  rise	
  of	
  ProtestanAsm	
  and	
  the	
  Renaissance	
  weren’t	
  enough,	
  the	
  prinAng	
  
pre...
Indeed,	
  by	
  comparing	
  printed	
  copies	
  of	
  the	
  data	
  of	
  Ptolemy,	
  Aristotle	
  and	
  others	
  
C...
The	
  noAon	
  of	
  cumulaAve	
  and	
  progressive	
  knowledge	
  was	
  the	
  foundaAon	
  of	
  the	
  
ScienAfic	
 ...
Protestant	
  ReformaAon,	
  the	
  Renaissance,	
  and	
  the	
  ScienAfic	
  RevoluAon.	
  	
  And	
  
remember,	
  the	
...
Today’s	
  digital	
  informaAon	
  revoluAon	
  accomplishes	
  the	
  same	
  feat	
  as	
  Gutenberg’s	
  
prinAng	
  p...
No,	
  think	
  instead	
  of	
  the	
  internal	
  combusAon	
  engine	
  and	
  the	
  discovery	
  of	
  cheap	
  oil	
...
That’s	
  the	
  kind	
  of	
  transformaAon	
  I’m	
  talking	
  about	
  —	
  except	
  I	
  think	
  the	
  second	
  
...
with	
  many-­‐to-­‐many	
  communicaAon	
  —	
  everyone	
  can	
  publish,	
  and	
  reach	
  anyone	
  on	
  
the	
  pl...
at	
  almost	
  zero	
  cost	
  	
  
21	
  
and	
  instantly.	
  	
  We	
  should	
  expect	
  social	
  transformaAon	
  from	
  the	
  Internet	
  revoluAon	
  
at	...
For	
  example,	
  let’s	
  start	
  with	
  instant	
  informaAon	
  sharing.	
  	
  Consider	
  the	
  Arab	
  Spring	
 ...
As	
  a	
  second	
  example,	
  what	
  about	
  lowering	
  the	
  cost	
  of	
  informaAon	
  reproducAon	
  and	
  
di...
Does	
  it	
  seem	
  outlandish	
  to	
  say	
  that	
  in	
  short	
  order	
  all	
  of	
  the	
  world’s	
  stored	
  ...
UnAl	
  very	
  recently,	
  informaAon	
  was	
  scarce,	
  because	
  —	
  even	
  a[er	
  Gutenberg	
  —	
  it	
  
was	...
Today,	
  informaAon	
  is	
  abundant.	
  	
  More	
  informaAon	
  than	
  the	
  world	
  had	
  ever	
  
produced	
  b...
Do	
  we	
  need	
  libraries	
  and	
  librarians	
  anymore?	
  	
  
28	
  
Oh	
  boy,	
  do	
  we.	
  	
  To	
  think	
  society	
  —	
  and	
  great	
  universiAes	
  —	
  don’t	
  need	
  librari...
These	
  media	
  require	
  decoding	
  by	
  hardware	
  that	
  may	
  become	
  obsolete	
  —	
  how	
  many	
  
of	
 ...
The	
  second	
  paradox	
  is	
  more	
  subtle,	
  but	
  more	
  immediately	
  important	
  to	
  today’s	
  
students...
Though	
  informaAon	
  is	
  more	
  abundant,	
  it	
  is	
  harder	
  to	
  find,	
  evaluate,	
  make	
  sense	
  of,	
...
Libraries,	
  more	
  than	
  ever,	
  are	
  crucial	
  for	
  converAng	
  our	
  informaAon	
  into	
  accessible	
  
f...
We	
  have	
  seen	
  the	
  rise	
  in	
  global	
  conflict	
  —	
  in	
  an	
  age	
  of	
  terrifying	
  weapons	
  of	...
With	
  much	
  lower	
  government	
  educaAon	
  support,	
  and	
  the	
  growing	
  burden	
  of	
  tuiAon	
  
and	
  ...
Students	
  rely	
  too	
  much	
  on	
  Google	
  and	
  Wikipedia	
  for	
  complex	
  problem-­‐solving	
  and	
  
rese...
The	
  Berkeley	
  Library	
  is	
  here	
  to	
  enable	
  this	
  great	
  university	
  to	
  ride	
  the	
  wave	
  of...
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The Second Gutenberg Revolution: The Internet and why we need librarians more than ever

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Talk presented to UC Berkeley Foundation, 10 Oct 2015.

The Gutenberg revolution was an enabler and shaper of the Protestant Reformation, the Renaissance, and the Scientific Revolution. It did so through a small, simple technological advance: merely a reduction in cost and increase in accuracy for information reproduction. But from that modest technological change, one-to-many communication became practical.

The digital revolution accomplished the same feat, only more so: the incremental cost of information reproduction is now about zero; reproduction accuracy is about perfect. And a new impact: information distribution is instant. These are even greater transformations than the Gutenberg press, which enabled and shaped the Protestant Revolution, the Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution. The impacts on civilization of the digital revolution over the coming decades and centuries will be even greater.

Though information is now abundant, finding, evaluating, making sense of and using *good* information is harder. In the Information Age, we need librarians and other information professionals more than ever.

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The Second Gutenberg Revolution: The Internet and why we need librarians more than ever

  1. 1. I’m  here  to  say  a  bit  about  the  future  of  the  research  university  library.    To  talk  about   the  future,  naturally,  I’m  going  to  begin  with  …  history!     Many  of  you  might  have  found  history  boring  when  you  were  a  Cal  student.     If  it  helps,  this  history  includes  a  hereAc  whose  body  was  burned,  a  war  that  killed   nearly  40%  of  the  populaAon  of  Germany,  the  invenAon  of  the  automobile,  and  a   Facebook-­‐fueled  revoluAon  overthrowing  the  government  of  Egypt.     Let’s  start.         John  Wycliffe,  professor  in  Balliol  College,  Oxford,  reAred  to  a  quiet  village  in   Leicestershire  in  1381.     1  
  2. 2. He  had  a  stroke  on  28  December  1384,  and  died  on  the  very  last  day  of  that  year.    RIP     But  he  wasn’t  allowed  to  RIP.     2  
  3. 3. 44  years  later,  Pope  MarAn  V  ordered  Wycliffe’s  body  exhumed  from  consecrated   ground.    The  body  was  burned  and  the  ashes  dumped  in  the  River  Swi[.    The  priests   burned  any  copies  of  his  books  they  could  find.       Why  all  of  this  hullabaloo?    And  why  care  today?    Because  Wycliffe  is  one  of  our  early   InformaAon  Martyrs:  he’s  one  of  our  heroes.         Notable  among  Wycliffe’s  crimes:  he  created  the  first  English-­‐language  translaAon  of   the  ChrisAan  Bible,  challenging  the  church-­‐approved  LaAn  translaAon.    Wycliffe  had   the  radical  idea  that  common  people  should  be  able  to  read  scripture  to  themselves,   in  their  vernacular,  rather  than  just  rely  on  priests  to  quote  it  to  them.             But  really,  Pope  MarAn  V  needn’t  have  bothered.    Wycliffe  was  a  failure.     3  
  4. 4. His  English-­‐language  Bible  was  handwriben,  by  scribes.    A  few  copies  were  made.    A   few  people  read  it.    Nothing  happened.   4  
  5. 5. About  90  years  later,  an  unknown  German  friar  wrote  a  criAque  of  the  Catholic   Church.    His  name  was  MarAn  Luther.    He  wrote  his  95  Theses     5  
  6. 6. as  a  handwriben  leber  to  his  archbishop,  protesAng  the  sale  of  indulgences  and  other   church  pracAces.    The  response?  Preby  much  a  big  yawn.    They  pabed  Luther  on  the   head  and  told  him  to  say  a  few  more  Hail  Marys.     But  three  months  later  something  magical  happened:  students  and  others  from   across  Europe  streamed  to  Wibenberg,  and  the  Protestant  ReformaAon  began.     What  was  the  difference  between  Wycliffe  who  failed,  and  Luther  who  unleashed  a   force  that  forever  change  the  governments  and  religions  and  naAonal  boundaries  of   the  western  world?    To  paraphrase  the  Wonderful  Wizard  of  Oz:   6  
  7. 7. “Why,  anybody  can  have  a  brain….But  you,  Luther,  have  one  thing  that  others  did   not:  a  prinAng  press.”       Indeed,  a[er  his  failed  leber  to  the  archbishop,  some  of  Luther’s  friends  translated   his  95  Theses  from  LaAn  to  German,  English,  French,  Italian…and  used  the  recently   invented  prinAng  press  to  print  mulAple  copies  and  distribute  them.    The  rest,  truly  is   history.    In  this  and  many  other  ways  over  the  next  100  years,  Gutenberg’s  prinAng   press  enabled,  even  caused  the  Protestant  ReformaAon,  and  the  world  changed   profoundly  and  permanently.         But  the  effects  of  the  prinAng  press  were  even  more  profound  than  just  the   Protestant  ReformaAon.    As  historian  Elizabeth  Eisenstein  has  shown,  the  prinAng   press  shaped  and  enabled  the  Renaissance  and  the  ScienAfic  RevoluAon  as  well.         Yes  indeed:  a  simple  info  technology  that  we  take  for  granted  today  enabled  and   shaped  the   7  
  8. 8. Protestant  ReformaAon   Renaissance   ScienAfic  RevoluAon     Wow.     8  
  9. 9. These  social  transformaAons,  played  out  over  several  hundred  years,  caused  most   major  social  and  governmental  insAtuAons  in  the  West  to  fall  or  be  radically   transformed.    The  Catholic  Church  was  no  longer  the  most  powerful  kingdom.     Feudalism  —  manors  and  serfs  —  gave  way  to  merchants  and  trade.    The  naAon-­‐state   replaced  small,  local  kingdoms.    Democracy  was  invented  and  took  root.    And   modern  science  was  created,  leading  to  steady  and  rapid  advancement  of  humankind   through  understanding  of  our  bodies,  our  minds,  our  ability  to  transform  the  world   around  us  and  build  every  more  powerful  technologies.    And,  of  course,  wars  were   fought  —  over  religion,  over  technology  and  resources  —  and  these  wars  became   ever  more  devastaAng  and  global.           9  
  10. 10. The  Thirty  Years  War  emerged  from  the  Protestant-­‐Catholic  conflict,  and  devastated   Europe,  including  killing  nearly  40%  of  the  German  populaAon.     How  could  the  invenAon  of  an  informaAon  technology  have  such  enormous  impact?     10  
  11. 11. Gutenberg’s  press  changed  the  world  through  the  simplest  of  technological   advances:  it  significantly  lowered  the  cost  and  increased  the  accuracy  of  reproducing   stored  informaAon.    That  is,  it  vastly  mulAplied  the  number  of  people  with  access  to   accumulated  knowledge,  and  made  that  informaAon  more  reliable  by  reducing   copying  errors.     So  just  how  important  was  Gutenberg?         Footnote:  The  following  discussion  relies  heavily  onElizabeth  Eisenstein’s   masterful  analysis,  as  well  as  some  more  recent  commentaries.    I  have   included  a  few  specific  cites,  but  I  need  to  improve  the  documentaAon  of   these  ideas.       11  
  12. 12. The  fourth  Renaissance  began  about  100  years  before  Gutenberg,  in  northern  Italy.     But  the  Renaissance  before  prinAng  was  largely  focused  on  looking  backwards,  on   restoring  the  intellectual,  arAsAc  and  cultural  accomplishments  of  the  Greek  classical   era.    Only  a[er  Gutenberg,  due  to  the  fixity,  accuracy  and  low  cost  of  print,  did  ideas   began  to  spread  north  of  the  Alps,  and  the  focus  turn  to  the  future:  the  classical  texts   became  fixed  points  of  reference,  and  scholars  began  to  improve  upon  them,   creaAng  a  blossoming  of  new  culture.    The  western  world  never  turned  back.    The   depth,  duraAon  and  success  of  the  Renaissance  owe  much  to  the  prinAng  press.     12  
  13. 13. As  if  the  rise  of  ProtestanAsm  and  the  Renaissance  weren’t  enough,  the  prinAng   press  and  this  change  in  the  amtude  towards  the  past  also  enabled  the  ScienAfic   RevoluAon.    As  Mander  wrote,     “Scribal  culture  revered  the  ancients  because  they  were  closer  to  uncorrupted   knowledge-­‐-­‐that  is,  knowledge  not  yet  corrupted  through  the  process  of  scribal   transmission...  Print  culture,  because  it  allows  for  cumulaAve  advance  of  knowledge,   views  the  past  from  a  fixed  distance.”     Quoted  in  Dewar,  James  A..  The  InformaAon  Age  and  the  PrinAng  Press:  Looking   Backward  to  See  Ahead.  Santa  Monica,  CA:  RAND  CorporaAon,  1998.  hbp:// www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P8014.       13  
  14. 14. Indeed,  by  comparing  printed  copies  of  the  data  of  Ptolemy,  Aristotle  and  others   Copernicus  was  able  to  idenAfy  their  errors  and  inconsistencies  and  with  his  “De   RevoluAonibus  Orbium  CoelesAum”  [Day  Reh-­‐voh-­‐loo-­‐tee-­‐OWN-­‐i-­‐bus  OR-­‐bee-­‐um   Koi-­‐LESS-­‐tee-­‐um]  in  1543,  to  commence  the  ScienAfic  RevoluAon.     14  
  15. 15. The  noAon  of  cumulaAve  and  progressive  knowledge  was  the  foundaAon  of  the   ScienAfic  RevoluAon.    Without  prinAng,  there  was  no  reliable  system  for  data   collecAon:  maps  changed  every  Ame  they  were  copied  by  hand,  astronomical   observaAons  accumulated  errors  in  each  successive  manuscript.       Causes  for  social,  cultural,  religious  and  scienAfic  revoluAons  are  complicated.    But   there  is  no  longer  serious  dispute  that  the  Gutenberg  revoluAon  was  an  enabler  and   shaper  of  the   15  
  16. 16. Protestant  ReformaAon,  the  Renaissance,  and  the  ScienAfic  RevoluAon.    And   remember,  the  immediate  effect  of  the  prinAng  press  was  merely  a  reducAon  in  cost   and  increase  in  accuracy  for  informaAon  reproducAon.    But  from  that  modest   technological  change,  one-­‐to-­‐many  communicaAon  became  pracAcal.     What  do  these  remarkable  transformaAons,  enabled  by  the  prinAng  press,  have  to  do   with  modern  informaAon  insAtuAons?    Now  we’re  in  the  beginning  of  the  second   Gutenberg  revoluAon  —  that  is,  the  digital  revoluAon.     16  
  17. 17. Today’s  digital  informaAon  revoluAon  accomplishes  the  same  feat  as  Gutenberg’s   prinAng  press  —  but  more  so.    The  digital  revoluAon  has  again  lowered  the   incremental  cost  of  informaAon  reproducAon  but  this  Ame  to  about  zero.    And  the   Internet  has  again  increased  reproducAon  accuracy,  but  this  Ame  to  about  perfect.             Second,  the  digital  revoluAon  accomplishes  an  addiAonal  feat  of  magic:  the  Internet   also  lowers  the  incremental  cost  —  and  delay  —  of  informaAon  distribu(on  to  about   zero.         Free  and  accurate  reproducAon;  free  and  instant  distribuAon.    This  is  the  spark  for  a   new  cultural  and  social  revoluAon  of  tremendous  import.    Any  Ame  a  crucial  resource   becomes  dramaAcally  less  expensive,  civilizaAon  changes.    What  you’ve  seen  on  the   Internet  so  far:  that’s  nothing.    Online  book  stores,  search  adverAsing,  even   Facebook:  baby  steps.       17  
  18. 18. No,  think  instead  of  the  internal  combusAon  engine  and  the  discovery  of  cheap  oil  a   bit  over  a  century  ago,  which  made  a  crucial  resource  —  personal  transportaAon  —   dramaAcally  less  expensive.    Now  try  to  imagine  society  today  without  motorized   personal  transportaAon.     18  
  19. 19. That’s  the  kind  of  transformaAon  I’m  talking  about  —  except  I  think  the  second   informaAon  revoluAon  will  be  much  more  important  than  the  automobile.     The  Gutenberg  revoluAon  enabled  a  small  number  of  authors  to  communicate  with  a   mass  audience:  one-­‐to-­‐many.    The  Internet  revoluAon  enables  universal  authorship…     19  
  20. 20. with  many-­‐to-­‐many  communicaAon  —  everyone  can  publish,  and  reach  anyone  on   the  planet  —       20  
  21. 21. at  almost  zero  cost     21  
  22. 22. and  instantly.    We  should  expect  social  transformaAon  from  the  Internet  revoluAon   at  least  as  significant  as  we  saw  from  the  Gutenberg  revoluAon.     What  sort  of  changes  will  there  be?    We  cannot  know:  no  one  could  predict  the   course  of  the  ScienAfic  RevoluAon,  for  example.    But  we  can  see  hints,  and  we  can  let   our  imaginaAons  run  free,  realizing  that  whatever  we  imagine,  the  actual  changes  will   likely  be  bigger  and  more  surprising.   22  
  23. 23. For  example,  let’s  start  with  instant  informaAon  sharing.    Consider  the  Arab  Spring   revoluAons  that  begin  in  2010:  revoluAons  or  civil  uprisings  in  Tunisia,  Egypt  (twice),   Libya,  Yemen,  Bahrain,  Syria,  Algeria,  Iraq,  Jordan,  Kuwait,  Morocco,  Sudan.     They  might  have  occurred  without  social  media.    But  Facebook,  Twiber,  and  YouTube   played  important  roles  in  giving  repressed,  impoverished  people  a  coordinaAon   plauorm  and  a  voice,  both  crucial  for  overthrowing  mulAple  military  regimes.    The   future  changes  in  governments  and  world  order  could  be  as  dramaAc  as  the  change   from  feudalism  to  the  naAon  state  at  the  close  of  the  Middle  Ages.   23  
  24. 24. As  a  second  example,  what  about  lowering  the  cost  of  informaAon  reproducAon  and   distribuAon  to  zero?       24  
  25. 25. Does  it  seem  outlandish  to  say  that  in  short  order  all  of  the  world’s  stored  knowledge   will  be  accessible  to  everyone,  from  a  pocket  device?  Not  outlandish:  we’re  already   close.       For  example,  informaAon  sociologist  David  Weinberger  —  former  co-­‐director  of  the   Harvard  Law  Library  InnovaAon  Lab  —  points  out  what  has  happened  during  just  the   past  10  years:       “massive  databases  of  economic  informaAon  released  by  the  World  Bank,  the  enAre   human  genome,  the  maps  of  billions  of  stars,  the  full  text  of  over  10  million  books   made  accessible  by  Google  Books,  abempts  to  catalog  all  Earth  species.”        Weinberger,  p.  37.     If  we  can  do  that  already,  what  won’t  be  available  10  years  from  now?         25  
  26. 26. UnAl  very  recently,  informaAon  was  scarce,  because  —  even  a[er  Gutenberg  —  it   was  relaAvely  expensive  to  reproduce,  transport  and  store.    How  big  a  library  of   books  could  the  typical  middle  class  home  own?    And  how  big  a  library  could  the   typical  office  worker  carry  in  his  or  her  pocket?         Because  informaAon  was  scarce,  we  needed  to  fund  public  insAtuAons  to  collect  and   make  it  available,  providing  access  to  many  by  sharing  expensive  (and  heavy)  copies.     We  called  these  libraries.   26  
  27. 27. Today,  informaAon  is  abundant.    More  informaAon  than  the  world  had  ever   produced  by  the  year  2000  can  now  be  carried  in  our  pocket,  via  a  smartphone   connected  to  the  Internet.    This  includes  nearly  all  of  the  books  owned  by  Berkeley,   available  in  my  pocket  through  the  HathiTrust.     27  
  28. 28. Do  we  need  libraries  and  librarians  anymore?     28  
  29. 29. Oh  boy,  do  we.    To  think  society  —  and  great  universiAes  —  don’t  need  libraries  in   the  age  of  Google  would  be  charmingly  naive,  if  it  weren’t  such  a  dangerously  flawed   misconcepAon.     InformaAon  is  now  abundant:  but  merely  having  informaAon  doesn’t  improve  our   lives  or  make  this  a  beber  world  in  which  to  live.    Indeed,  with  such  an  abundance  of   informaAon  —  more  than  anyone  can  handle  —  makes  informaAon  professionals   more  important  than  ever.         John  Palfrey  —  former  Harvard  Law  professor,  founding  chairman  of  the  Digital  Public   Library  of  America,  and  currently  head  of  school  at  Phillips  Academy  in  Andover,   Mass.  —  writes  that  “two  important  paradoxes  of  digital  life  make  clear  this  growing,   not  diminishing,  importance  of  libraries.”   Palfrey,  John  (2015-­‐05-­‐05).  BiblioTech:  Why  Libraries  Maber  More  Than  Ever   in  the  Age  of  Google  (p.  110).  Basic  Books.  Kindle  EdiAon.     One  paradox  is  that  digital  informaAon,  while  easier  to  access  than  ever  before,  is   harder  to  preserve.    Digital  storage  media  last  reliably  a  very  short  Ame  —  10,  25,  at   best  25  years.     29  
  30. 30. These  media  require  decoding  by  hardware  that  may  become  obsolete  —  how  many   of  you  sAll  have  a  floppy  drive  on  your  computer?    Digital  informaAon  is  stored  in   so[ware  formats  that  may  become  obsolete,  or  that  may  require  programs  to   interpret  and  display  it  that  may  become  obsolete.    Indeed,  many  worry  that  the   current  generaAon  will  be  a  digital  “Dark  Ages”  for  future  generaAons  —  that  much   of  our  cultural,  social,  economic  and  historic  records  may  be  lost.    More  than  ever  we   need  informaAon  professionals  —  and  funding  —  to  develop  techniques  to  preserve   our  informaAon,  if  we  do  not  want  to  create  this  digital  Dark  Age.         30  
  31. 31. The  second  paradox  is  more  subtle,  but  more  immediately  important  to  today’s   students,  faculty  and,  indeed,  to  all  of  us  and  our  society.       31  
  32. 32. Though  informaAon  is  more  abundant,  it  is  harder  to  find,  evaluate,  make  sense  of,   and  use  good  informaAon         Are  librarians  able  to  help?    OF  COURSE!    This  is  the  profession,  more  than  two   thousand  years  old,  that  has  always  specialized  in  helping  people  find,  evaluate  and   use  informaAon  —  with  technology  —  to  improve  their  lives.    Once  the  technology   was  papyrus  and  stone  tablets,  leber  paper  books,  now  it’s  usually  a  computer.    No   profession  is  more  focused  or  beber  trained  to  help  students  and  faculty  use  the   technology  of  the  day  for  their  informaAon  needs.     Indeed,  we  need  —  more  than  ever  —  libraries  and  informaAon  professionals  to  help   solve  many  pressing  informaAon  challenges,  or  we  will  be  rich  in  informaAon  but   poor  in  knowledge  and  poor  in  our  ability  to  solve  the  terribly  complex  social   problems  facing  us.     For  example,  far  too  much  informaAon  is  not  yet  accessible  (by  which  I  mean  not  in   digital  form,  or  not  in  wriben  form,  or  restricted  for  reasons  of  secrecy,  privacy,   commercial  interest,  costs)     32  
  33. 33. Libraries,  more  than  ever,  are  crucial  for  converAng  our  informaAon  into  accessible   forms.     The  world  can  afford  it,  but  most  individuals  do  not  have  the  means  to  acquire  access   to  informaAon   33  
  34. 34. We  have  seen  the  rise  in  global  conflict  —  in  an  age  of  terrifying  weapons  of  mass   destrucAon  —  that  results  from  vast  inequality.  Libraries,  more  than  ever,  are  crucial   for  enabling  access  to  the  poor  and  disenfranchised.     Of  course,  informaAon  affordability  isn’t  just  a  third-­‐world  problem.            As  the  cost  of   prisons  and  Medicaid  rise,  our  state  has  been  rapidly  cumng  support  for  higher   educaAon.    In  FY13  California  spent  30%  of  its  budget  on  prisons  and  Medicaid,  and   only  6.6%  on  higher  educaAon.     34  
  35. 35. With  much  lower  government  educaAon  support,  and  the  growing  burden  of  tuiAon   and  student  debt  on  the  middle  class,  we  have  to  turn  to  philanthropists  —  like  you   —  to  offer  a  world-­‐class  Berkeley  educaAon.         This  is  especially  true  for  the  library  because  some  of  our  most  important  digital   scienAfic  informaAon  is  controlled  by  monopolists.    Our  single  largest  expenditure   each  year  is  on  electronic  scienAfic  journals.    The  three  dominant  publishers  are   earning  profits  of  35-­‐40%.    The  list  prices  for  journals  from  the  largest,  Elsevier,  are   two  and  a  half  Ames  higher  now  than  they  were  10  years  ago.           Another  big  problem  for  future  ciAzens  in  a  globally-­‐compeAAve  world:  Most  people   do  not  have  the  skills  and  ability  to  evaluate  the  quality  of  informaAon,  or  make  good   use  of  it.   35  
  36. 36. Students  rely  too  much  on  Google  and  Wikipedia  for  complex  problem-­‐solving  and   research,  and  they  misuse  more  sophisAcated  databases.    Google’s  own  research   scienAsts*  have  found  that  students  don’t  even  know  how  to  take  advantage  of  the   search  tools  available  in  Google.    We  are  lemng  our  students  down  if  we  don’t  teach   them  basic  informaAon  literacy  skills  for  the  21st  century.      *Steve  Kolwich,  “Searching  for  Beber  Research  Habits”,Inside  Higher   EducaAon,  2010.   36  
  37. 37. The  Berkeley  Library  is  here  to  enable  this  great  university  to  ride  the  wave  of  the   second  Gutenberg  revoluAon,  rather  than  to  be  deluged  by  the  informaAon  tsunami.     Our  mission  is  to  help  people  find,  access,  evaluate  and  use  informaAon  to  build  a   beber  world.         There  is  no  great  university  without  a  great  library.    For  Berkeley  to  remain  great,  we   must  learn  to  ride  this  wave,  because  the  Second  Gutenberg  RevoluAon  will  change   everything,  soon,  just  as  the  Gutenberg  press  the  Protestant  ReformaAon,  the   Renaissance  and  the  ScienAfic  RevoluAon  change  everything  about  civilizaAon  as  we   once  knew  it.     My  point  is  simple,  in  the  end:  in  the  InformaAon  Age,  we  need  librarians  and  other   informaAon  professionals  more  than  ever.         Welcome  to  my  world,  the  world  of  the  21st  century  library.    Thank  you  for  listening.     37  

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