Ancient Ideas of Creation & Evolution

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  • You never realize your myths. / Myths generate facts out of values . / anthropomorphize and thus limit the unlimitable.
  • Ancient Ideas of Creation & Evolution

    1. 1. ANCIENT IDEAS Babylonian - Hebrew - Greek
    2. 2. MYTH A fiction or half-truth, especially one that forms part of an ideology. A traditional, typically ancient story dealing with supernatural beings, ancestors, or heroes that serves as a fundamental type in the worldview of a people, by explaining aspects of the natural world or delineating the psychology, customs, or ideals of the society.
    3. 3. SOCIOLOGICAL FUNCTION “The primary function of myth is to validate and existing social order. Myth enshrines conservative social values, raising tradition on a pedestal. … Because myth anchors the present in the past, it is a sociological charter for a future society which is an exact replica of the present one.” (Anne Oakley)
    4. 4. MESOPOTAMIA Between Tigris & Euphrates Rivers – the “Fertile Crescent’ 6000 BCE - 4000 BCE - Development of Sumerian cities 2330 BCE - Akkadian invasion from Northern Mesopotamia Clay Tablets (cuneiform script)
    5. 5. BABYLONIAN RELIGION Polytheistic - a god for each city Priestly sect - literacy Temples No after-life
    6. 6. ENUMA ELISH Creation from Chaos Division Establishment of a divine ruler Divine conflict
    7. 7. BERESHIT / GENESIS
    8. 8. 1.  The waters above the firmament 2.  Storage of snow 3.  Storage of hail 4.  Rooms for the winds 5.  The firmament 6.  Cataracts 7.  The Pillars of Heaven 8.  The Pillars of Earth 9.  Fountains of the Abyss 10.  Center of the Earth 11.  Subterranean waters 12.  Rivers of the Underworld
    9. 9. A STATIONARY EARTH • “The LORD is king, robed with majesty; the LORD is robed, girded with might. The world will surely stand in place, never to be moved.” [Psalms 93:1] • “The LORD is king. The world will surely stand fast, never to be moved.” [Psalms 96: 10] • “You fixed the earth on its foundation, never to be moved.” [Psalms 104: 5] • “Tremble before him, all the earth; he has made the world firm, not to be moved.” (1 Chronicles 16: 30] • “So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.” [Joshua 10:13]
    10. 10. AGE OF THE EARTH James Ussher Annals of the Old Covenant from the First Origin of the World (1650) Creation on the evening preceding Sunday, 23rd October 4004 BCE 6,014 year old versus 4,550,000,000 year old (±1%)
    11. 11. AGE OF THE EARTH 18th C - Buffon used cooling to estimate 100,000 years 19th C - James Hutton introduces “deep time” 19th C - Lord Kelvin estimated 98,000,000 years By 1900, no scientist accepted a young earth.
    12. 12. WHO WROTE THE PENTATEUCH? Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy Nineteenth Century preoccupation with authentication Discovery of “doublets” based on linguistic style and repetition. Then triplets ... Lead to the “Documentary Hypothesis”
    13. 13. THE DOCUMENTARY HYPOTHESIS J: ‘YHVH’ - Jehovah - JHWH; ~1000 BCE, southern kingdom of Judah E: ‘Elohim’; ~850 BCE, northern kingdom of Israel P: Priestly (concerned with rites, duties and genealogy) – between 550 and 450 BCE D: Book of Deuteronomy - between 650 & 621 BCE R: “Redactors”
    14. 14. GENESIS I:1-2 When G-d began to create heaven and earth, and the earth then was welter and waste and darkness over the deep and G-d's breath hovering over the waters, G-d said, "Let there be light." And there was light. And G-d saw the light, that it was good, and G-d divided the light from the darkness.And G-d called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And it was evening and it was morning, first day.
    15. 15. GENESIS 1:1 - 2:4 • (heavens & earth) / light • Heaven (separates waters) • Dry land (Earth), seas, vegetation, trees, fruit “according to their own kinds” • Sun, moon and stars • Sea monsters, aquatic animals, “winged birds” • “Cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth according to their kind” / Man (Male and Female)
    16. 16. GENESIS 1:1 - 2:4 • P account dating from the Exile in Babylon, 6th C BCE • Creation of universe • Order over chaos • Lush environment • Splitting of water • Transcendent God
    17. 17. GENESIS 2:4 - On the day the LORD G-d made earth and heavens, no shrub of the field being yet on the earth and no plant of the field yet sprouted, for the LORD G-d had not caused rain to fall on the earth and there was no human to till the soil, and wetness would well from the earth to water all the surface of the soil, then the LORD G-d fashioned the human, and blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and the human became a living creature. And the LORD G-d planted a garden in Eden, to the east, and He placed there the human He had fashioned.
    18. 18. GENESIS 2:4 - • Man not heavens important • Barren earth (no water / no tiller) • Order different • Man, plants, animals, woman
    19. 19. GENESIS 3 -4 • Fall of Man [3] • First sin / Origin of childbirth [3:16] • Lower status of women [3:16] • Who/what is the Serpent? • Good or evil? • Why expulsion? [3:22] • Cain & Abel [4] • Agriculture / Murder
    20. 20. GENESIS 2:4 - • J account, dating from the Reign of King Solomon. ~1000 BCE • Imagery of wandering shepherds • Water / barren earth • Concerned with man • Anthropomorphic God
    21. 21. NOACHIAN FLOOD 600 year old Noah warned by God, builds ark for family and pair of each animal, flood lasts 40 days / 40 nights, comes to rest at Mountains of Arrarat.
    22. 22. IMPORTANCE OF THE FLOOD Creation event itself cannot be studied scientifically (as admitted by Morris, Gish etc) ... but a Global Deluge can. Inference that the geological record shows the marks of a global flood Therefore, the Genesis flood account is validated Therefore, the totality of the Genesis account is validated
    23. 23. “Billions of dead things Buried in rock layers Laid down by water All over the earth.”
    24. 24. MESOPOTAMIAN FLOOD • Tale of Atrahasis (~ 2000 BCE) • God Enki warns Atrahasis • Ark / animals / family • Known to Canaanites • Source of Hebrew account or common source with it?
    25. 25. TOWER OF BABEL God punishes people of “one language and one speech” for attempting to reach heaven and defy his order to “multiply and fill the earth” Creation of languages & races, dispersion of humankind.
    26. 26. HENRY MORRIS The Tower of Babel was “a true event of history” “the original mother of spiritual harlotry and idolatrous abominations” “ancient universal world-religion of evolutionary pantheism” “Satan himself is the originator of evolution” Enuma Elish is a Satanic corruption.
    27. 27. HISTORICAL FLOOD? • 5 my BCE - Dry Mediterranean • 18,000 BCE - End of Ice Age • 10,000 BCE - New Euxine Lake becomes land-locked; Beginning of concentration of tribes around the lake • 5600 - Flooding of lake by Mediterranean and dispersal of tribes
    28. 28. HISTORICAL FLOOD? •2300 - Invasion of Akkadians from North into Babylonia •2000 - Enuma Elish and Epic of Gilgamesh •1000 - Genesis (J – Kingdom of Solomon) •550 - Genesis (P – Exile in Babylon)
    29. 29. A FLOOD TO REMEMBER • The Mediterranean was ~425 feet above the lake • Expansion of the freshwater lake (now the saltwater Black Sea) north and east • The flow would reach 10 cubic miles of water per day - 200 times the flow of the present Niagara Falls. • Its velocity would have reached 50 miles per hour (over 80 km/hour) • Its noise would have been audible 120 miles (200 km) away. • The lake level would have risen about six inches a day. • The shoreline would have expanded up to a mile each day in some areas. 
    30. 30. DISPERSAL
    31. 31. GREEK FLOOD MYTH • Deucalion, son of Prometheus • Zeus decides to destroy humanity with a 9-day flood. • Deucalion & Pyrrha survive, thanks to a warning by Prometheus and a boat which came to rest on the top of Mt.  Parnassus. • The “bones of your mother” (Gaia - Earth, i.e. stones) form humans.
    32. 32. HESIOD - THEOGONY
    33. 33. ANAXAGORAS ~500 - 428 BCE A chaotic mix of matter (in the form of miniature spermata) was organized by an independent Mind (Nous) possessing all knowledge and power.
    34. 34. ANAXAGORAS
    35. 35. EMPEDOCLES 490 – 430 BCE Four eternal elements (fire, air, water & earth) are organized by Love and Strife, with the latter gaining increasing predominance. Parts came together and only those that were adapted stayed together and survived.
    36. 36. DEMOCRITUS ~460 - 370 BCE Everything is composed of eternal, indestructible, indivisible atoms that are in constant motion; between atoms lies empty space; there are an infinite number & kinds of atoms, which differ in shape, and size. Creator? Designer?
    37. 37. Epicurus Lucretius
    38. 38. Plato Aristotle

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