MythsWallace was the real discoverer of natural selectionand Darwin stole the idea from himWallace fully accepted the power of natural selectionWallace eventually spent his later years avoidingevolution and examining issues which were whollymarginal.Wallace can be thought of as a “design theorist”
Evolution Social Nat. History + Origins Spiritualism 9% 1% 28%34% 28%
Early Years Born in Usk, Wales. Middle-class family 1836: Apprenticed to builder Inﬂuence of Owenite utopian socialism and Thomas Paine 1837: Surveying w/ brother Mechanics Institution lectures 1844: Teaching in Leicester Reads Malthus, Lyell and Chambers Investigates mesmerism
Mesmerism Franz Anton Mesmer “Animal magnetism” The French Royal Commission of 1784
On Vestiges“I have a rather more favourable opinion of the ‘Vestiges’than you [Bates] appear to have. I do not consider it ahasty generalization, but rather as an ingenious hypothesisstrongly supported by some striking facts and analogies,but which remains to be proven by more facts and theadditional light which more research may throw upon theproblem. It furnishes a subject for every student of natureto attend to; every fact he observes will make either foror against it, and it thus serves both as an incitement tothe collection of facts, and an object to which they can beapplied when collected.”
Henry Walter Bates Explores Amazon with Wallace (1848 - ’59) Returns over 14,000 species of which 8,000 were new to science. 1862: “Contributions to an insect fauna of the Amazon Valley: Heliconiidae” Batesian mimicry - mimicry by a palatable species of an unpalatable or noxious species. Evidence for natural selection
Henry Walter Bates 1844: Meets Wallace Correspond on Vestiges, Darwin’s Journal of Researches and Lyell’s Principles of Geology. 1848: Wallace and Bates explore the Amazon as professional natural history collectors Goal was to “gather facts towards solving the problem of the origin of species” Test idea that closely-related species should inhabit neighboring areas 1852: Wallace returns home and loses everything
1852 - ’54Sale of (few) remainingspecimensPalm Trees of the Amazon andtheir UsesTravels on the AmazonBrieﬂy meets Darwin
Malay Archipelago 1854 - ‘62Collect over 125,000specimens 80,000 beetles 1,000 new species
1853“On the Monkeys of theAmazon” Geographic barriers often separate closely related species “Are very closely allied species ever separated by a wide interval of country?”Answer would appear in 1855
Species“On the Law which has regulated the introduction ofnew species” (1855)Four geographical facts and ﬁve geological factsOne deduction (the “Sarawak Law”), namely: “Every species has come into existence coincident both in space and time with a pre-existing closely allied species.”Transmutation!
4 Geographic Facts1. Large groups, such as classes and orders, are generally spread over the whole earth, while smaller ones, such as families and genera, are frequently conﬁned to one portion, often to a very limited district.2. In widely distributed families the genera are often limited in range; in widely distributed genera, well marked groups of species are peculiar to each geographical district.3. When a group is conﬁned to one district, and is rich in species, it is almost invariably the case that the most closely allied species are found in the same locality or in closely adjoining localities, and that therefore the natural sequence of the species by afﬁnity is also geographical.4. In countries of a similar climate, but separated by a wide sea or lofty mountains, the families, genera and species of the one are often represented by closely allied families, genera and species peculiar to the other.
5 Geological Facts1. The distribution of the organic world in time is very similar to its present distribution in space.2. Most of the larger and some small groups extend through several geological periods.3. In each period, however, there are peculiar groups, found nowhere else, and extending through one or several formations.4. Species of one genus, or genera of one family occurring in the same geological time, are more closely allied than those separated in time.5. As generally in geography no species or genus occurs in two very distant localities without being also found in intermediate places, so in geology the life of a species or genus has not been interrupted. In other words, no group or species has come into existence twice.
ReactionLyell: Began to see the possibility of transmutationBlyth: “Good! Upon the whole!... Wallace has, I thinkput the matter well”Darwin: “[N]othing very new ... Uses my simile of tree[but] it seems all creation with him.”
1858Feb: Malarial bout in Ternate (?) leads to “On theTendency of Varieties to Depart Indeﬁnitely From theOriginal Type.”Jun: Darwin receives manuscript and request to read itand pass it on to Lyell. CD to Lyell: “He could not have made a better short abstract! ... he does not say he wishes me to publish, but I shall, of course, at once write and offer to send to any journal.”Jul: Paper read to Linnean Society
1847: Extracts of theory sent to Hooker 1857: Letter to Gray 1858: Wallace paper
Wallace To Hooker Sep 1858“Allow me in the ﬁrst place sincerely to thank yourself & Sir Charles Lyell for your kind ofﬁces onthis occasion, & to assure you of the gratiﬁcation afforded me both by the course you havepursued & the favourable opinions of my essay which you have so kindly expressed. I cannot butconsider myself a favoured party in this matter, because it has hitherto been too much thepractice in cases of this sort to impute all the merit to the ﬁrst discoverer of a new fact or a newtheory, & little or none to any other party who may, quite independently, have arrived at the sameresult a few years or a few hours later. I also look upon it as a most fortunate circumstance that I had a short time ago commenceda correspondence with Mr. Darwin on the subject of “Varieties,” since it has led to the earlierpublication of a portion of his researches & has secured to him a claim of priority which anindependent publication either by myself or some other party might have injuriously affected, —for it is evident that the time has now arrived when these & similar views will be promulgated &must be fairly discussed. It would have caused me such pain & regret had Mr. Darwin’s excess of generosity led him tomake public my paper unaccompanied by his own much earlier & I doubt not much morecomplete views on the same subject, & I must again thank you for the course you have adopted,which while strictly just to both parties, is so favourable to myself.”
1862Visits DarwinIs introduced to Spencer & LyellWriting, lecturing, editing, examcorrecting …Land planning, statisticalepidemiology, biogeography,glaciology, exobiology,anthropology, museum design,social planning …
Ideas• Greenbelts (1882) • Fire hoses for riot control (1899)• Protection of rural areas as monuments (1882) • Mars is uninhabited (1907)• Labeling of goods (1885) • Overhunting causes• Paper money as extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene (1910) standard (1898)
Natural Selection1863: “Remarks on Haughton’s Paper on the Bee’s Celland on the Origin of Species”1867: “Creation by Law” (against Argyll)1870: Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection1889: Darwinism
Darwin and WallaceNatural Selection “environmental pressures on varieties” (ARW) versus “competition between individuals” (CD) NS “checks and corrects any irregularities almost before they become evident.” Denial of ubiquitous power speciﬁcally with regard to human mind.Sexual selection Denial of (much) power Tropical Nature and Other Essays (1878) presented alternative and explained warning coloration of caterpillars etc
Wallace Effect1889: DarwinismWhen two populations of a species have diverged,hybrid offspring would be less-well adapted and naturalselection would eliminate the hybrids.Individuals who avoid hybridization (for whateverreason) would be ﬁtter.
Biogeography1876: The GeographicalDistribution of Animals1878: Tropical Nature andOther Essays1880: Island Life
Away from the Mainstream Anti-vaccination Land Nationalization Socialism Opposition to “Social Darwinism” and eugenics. Support for women’s suffrage. Spiritualism
Selection and Humans1864: “The Origin of Human Races and the Antiquityof Man Deduced From the Theory of ‘NaturalSelection’”Accepted human evolution as a two stage process:body (bipedalism) and brain.But cannot explain artistic/musical abilities, humor, orphilosophy (CD used sexual selection).
SpiritSomething in the “unseen universe of Spirit” had: created life from non-life, introduced consciousness to higher organisms, and generated the higher faculties in humans.The development of human spirit was the reason forthe universe (anthropocentric teleology)
Spiritualism Wallace become interested in 1865 “I thus learnt my ﬁrst great lesson in the inquiry into [mesmerism], never to accept the disbelief of great men or their accusations of imposture or of imbecility, as of any weight when opposed to the repeated observation of facts by other men, admittedly sane and honest. The whole history of science shows us that whenever the educated and scientiﬁc men of any age have denied the facts of other investigators on a priori grounds of absurdity or impossibility, the deniers have always been wrong.” Science and philosophy, not religion
Hooker - 1879 “Wallace has lost caste considerably, not only by his adhesion to Spiritualism, but by the fact of his having deliberately and against the whole voice of the committee of his section of the British Association, brought about a discussion of on Spiritualism at one of its sectional meetings. That he is said to have done so in an underhanded manner, and I well remember the indignation it gave rise to in the B.A. Council.”
WallaceSpiritualism could explain historical events and provide amoral theorySpiritualism was testable and veriﬁableScientists have wrongly ignore the evidence for spiritualism; “[They] seem to think that it is an argument against the facts being genuine that they cannot all be produced and exhibited at will; and another argument against them, that they cannot be explained by any known laws. But neither can catalepsy, the fall of meteoric stones nor hydrophobia”
1871“While proclaiming loudly that theonly way to acquire knowledge is byobservation of facts, by experiment,and by the formation of provisionalhypotheses to serve as the basis forfurther experiment and moreextended observation, they have yet,for many years refused to accept anyfacts or experiments which go toprove the existence of reconditepowers in the human mind, or theaction of minds not in a visible body”
“Historical Teachings” Socrates was sane Ancient oracles Scriptural events Miracles of the saints Witchcraft Modern Catholic miracles “Second sight” Efﬁcacy of prayer
1875Man is a duality, consisting of an organizedspiritual form, evolved coincidently andpermeating the physical body, and havingcorresponding organs and development.Death is the separation of this duality, andeffects no change in the spirit, morally orintellectually.Progressive evolution of the intellectualand moral nature is the destiny ofindividuals; the knowledge, attainments,and experience of earth-life forming thebasis of spirit-life.
Moral Force The characteristics of a period are primarily determined by the level of intellectual and moral development attained in life This development comes through rejecting materialistic, self-centered goals and adopting a socially conscious attitude There is a continuity of cause and effect in nature such that an individual’s actions result in “just” rewards or punishment
Wallace and DesignOpposition to materialism and support for teleology &purpose is equated with “intelligent design” and/or theisticevolutionism.If so, so what?C.H. Smith: “Don’t fall for the facile understanding beingpromoted by some agenda-driven observers who arguethat, just because Wallace was a spiritualist and believedthat ‘higher intelligences’ were inﬂuencing events here onearth, that he also believed in miraculous, non-law-basedkinds of Godly intervention.”
WallaceNow, in referring to the origin of man, and its possible determining causes, I have usedthe words "some other power" - "some intelligent power" - "a superior intelligence" - "acontrolling intelligence," and only in reference to the origin of universal forces and lawshave I spoken of the will or power of "one Supreme Intelligence." These are the onlyexpressions I have used in alluding to the power which I believe has acted in the case ofman, and they were purposely chosen to show, that I reject the hypothesis of "ﬁrstcauses" for any and every special effect in the universe, except in the same sense thatthe action of man or of any other intelligent being is a ﬁrst cause. In using such terms Iwished to show plainly, that I contemplated the possibility that the development of theessentially human portions of mans structure and intellect may have been determined bythe directing inﬂuence of some higher intelligent beings, acting through natural anduniversal laws. A belief of this nature may or may not have a foundation, but it is anintelligible theory, and is not, in its nature, incapable of proof; and it rests on facts andarguments of an exactly similar kind to those, which would enable a sufﬁciently powerfulintellect to deduce, from the existence on the earth of cultivated plants and domesticanimals, the presence of some intelligent being of a higher nature than themselves.
"The last of the giantsbelonging to that wonderfulgroup of intellectuals thatincluded, among others,Darwin, Huxley, Spencer,Lyell, and Owen, whosedaring investigationsrevolutionised andevolutionised the thoughtof the century." New York Times