Neoclassical To The 20th Century


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Neoclassical To The 20th Century

  1. 1. Karl Friedrich Schinkel<br />Architecture In Berlin<br />Neil MacIntosh<br />
  2. 2. Schinkel<br />Karl Friedrich Schinkel was the most famous and influential German Neoclassical architect of the 1800s. Originally, he worked mostly as a painter and a theatrical set designer. His most famous set was for the original production of Mozart’s The Magic Flute. In 1815, he received an appointment to an important architectural post in Berlin, allowing him to focus more on architecture. <br />
  3. 3. Altes Museum<br />Schinkel built the Altes Museum between 1823 and 1830 to house the Prussian royal family’s art collection. The building, a Neoclassical structure, features an Ionic colonnade of Greek influence on its façade and a large central rotunda, modeled after the Pantheon in Rome. <br />
  4. 4. NeueWache<br />The NeueWache, or New Watch, was built by Schinkel between 1816 and 1818. It is based on ancient Roman military structures, with four corner tower-like elements and a pediment modeled after the Pantheon. It served as a guard house until 1918. It was destroyed during WWII but was rebuilt in and in 1993 it was christened as the Central Memorial of the Federal Republic of Germany. <br />
  5. 5. Schauspielhaus<br />The Schauspielhaus, now called Konzerthaus, was built by Schinkel in 1818 to replace the National Theatre, which burned down in 1817. It is in the Greek Revival style, featuring ornate colonnades and pediments on every façade and a large, raised entryway at the top of a grand staircase. Damaged in the bombing of Berlin, it was rebuilt in the 1970s with the outside true to original designs. <br />
  6. 6. Friedrichswerdersche Kirche<br />The Friedrichswerdersche Kirche was built in 1824 in honor of Friedrich Wilhelm the Great Elector. It is a Neo-Gothic church, featuring two large brick towers at the front, a large, vaulted nave, high, pointed arches, and many stained-glass windows. It is now used as a sculpture gallery. <br />
  7. 7. Maxim Gorki Theatre<br />The Maxim Gorki Theatre was built in 1825. It is a Neoclassical building, with false Corinthian columns on the façade and a simple triangular pediment. It is one of Berlin’s largest theatres. It was damaged during WWII and rebuilt in 1947. In 1952 it was renamed in honor of the Soviet playwright and author Maxim Gorki. <br />
  8. 8. Elisabethkirche<br />The Elisabethkirche was built by Schinkel between 1832 and 1835. Schinkel’s design later became the model for several other churches in Berlin. It is a simple, Neoclassical church modeled after Greek temples. The façade has a simple colonnade and a pediment. The interior was designed so that worshippers would be close to the altar. It was burned down in WWII and the exterior was rebuilt in 2004. <br />
  9. 9. Sources<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
  10. 10. Neoclassical Architecture in Berlin<br />Mireille Pardon<br />March 10, 2010<br />
  11. 11. The Reichstag<br /><ul><li>Constructed between 1884 and 1894 by Paul Wallot to house the new parliament of the united German Empire.
  12. 12. In 1918, Philipp Scheidemann proclaimed the republic from the balcony of the Reichstag building.
  13. 13. In 1933, there was a fire, destroying the dome at the top of the building. The fire was said to have been started by a Communist, giving fuel for Nazi’s attacks against political opponents.
  14. 14. The building sustained serious damage during World War II and restoration under the architect Paul Baumgarten was performed, not ending in 1972.
  15. 15. In 1990, after German unity, the Reichstag was made the house of the German parliament once again.
  16. 16. There was extensive restoration and a new dome was added by architect Norman Foster in 1997-99.
  17. 17. The building features Corinthian columns along the entrance and more decoratively along the outside walls, a style derived from ancient Roman architecture, characterizing the classical themes common to the neoclassical movement.
  18. 18. It prominently also features a dome, though destroyed and then rebuilt.</li></li></ul><li>The Brandenburg Gate<br /><ul><li>Constructed between 1788 and 1791 on commission by King Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia as a symbol of peace.
  19. 19. It served as an entryway to the boulevard that led to the palace of the Prussian monarchs.
  20. 20. After his defeat of Prussia in 1806, Napoleon took the statue of the horse-drawn chariot back to Paris. It was returned after Napoleon’s defeat at the battle of Waterloo in 1814.
  21. 21. When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, the gate was seen as a symbol of the unity of the city.
  22. 22. Architect: Carl Gotthard Langhans
  23. 23. The Brandenburg Gate exemplifies neoclassical style as its design was based off a classical building, the Propylaea in Athens, the monumental entry hall of the Acropolis.
  24. 24. The gate is formed by 12 Doric columns.
  25. 25. The quadriga, the horse-drawn </li></ul>chariot, features Victoria, the Roman <br />goddess of victory.<br />
  26. 26. The AlteNationalgalerie<br /><ul><li>The building’s design was based off a sketch by King Frederick William IV of Prussia, and was constructed between 1869 and 1876.
  27. 27. There were heavy damages during World War II due to air raids. However, it was partially reopened in 1949, with restorations occurring until 1969.
  28. 28. From 1998 to 2001, there have been thorough renovations.
  29. 29. Architect: August Stüler
  30. 30. The building prominently features elements of classical architecture such as the Triangular pediment over the eight columns on the front.
  31. 31. An overall temple-like structure with a double flight of stairs leading up either side of the entrance and an equestrian statue of Friedrich Wilhelm IV.
  32. 32. Ornate columns in the style of a Corinthian temple.</li></li></ul><li>Bodemuseum<br /><ul><li>Originally known as the Kaiser Friedrich Museum, it was founded in 1904 by Emperor Wilhelm II (1859-1941). It was renamed in 1956 to honor its first curator, Wilhelm van Bode.
  33. 33. It suffered significant damages in World War II and went under many repairs in the 1950s.
  34. 34. Restorations also took place in the 1990s.
  35. 35. Architect: Ernst von Ihne
  36. 36. A stately, palatial building with a large dome in the northwest corner and a smaller dome on the other end.
  37. 37. The exterior also features Corinthian columns built against the walls and series of statues along the upper balcony.</li></li></ul><li>Siegessaule<br /><ul><li>Designed in 1864 by HeinrichStrackto</li></ul>commemorate the Prussian victory in the<br /> Danish-Prussian war.<br /><ul><li>By the time it was completed, Prussia had also been victorious in the Austro-Prussian War (1866) and the Franco-Prussian War (1871), giving the statue multiple meanings.
  38. 38. Inspired by these victories, the bronze sculpture of Victoria, the Roman goddess of victory, not featured in the original designs, was designed by Friedrich Drake and added to the top.
  39. 39. Emperor Wilhelm I (1861-1888) presided over its completion on 1873. With the wars of unification over, Berlin had just been founded as the capital of Germany of King Wilhelm I of Prussia had been crowned Emperor in 1871.
  40. 40. Features classical themes as it has a statue of a Roman goddess crowning its top.
  41. 41. Decorated with enemy cannons that are attached to the sides.
  42. 42. Above the square pedestal and below the actual column, there is a circular balcony featured fourteen columns going around it.</li></li></ul><li>Albrechtsberg Palace <br /><ul><li>Built between 1850 and 1854 by Adolf Lohse for the Prussian prince Albrecht.
  43. 43. Prince Albrecht had the palace built because he had to leave Prussia since he had married Rosalie Countess of Hohenau, a woman below his social class.
  44. 44. Prince Albrecht was the youngest brother of the Prussian Kings Friedrich Wilhelm IV and Wilhelm I.
  45. 45. It is one of three castles on the right bank of the Elbe River in Dresden.
  46. 46. The gardens were designed by Eduard Neide and court gardener Hermann Neumann directed their fulfillment. The garden was originally opened to the public before the castle itself was.
  47. 47. The palace has influences both from Greek and Roman buildings as well as Renaissance Italian villas.
  48. 48. The classical influence can be seen in the Corinthian columns around the fountain in front of the palace.
  49. 49. Also in front of the palace, there are pediments over columns, a classical architectural structure.</li></li></ul><li>19th Century Revivals<br />Berlin Mini-term<br />Caitlin Foster<br />
  50. 50. Martin Gropius Bau<br />architects Martin Gropius and HeinoSchmieden<br />Neo-Renaissance style<br /><ul><li>The building was severely damaged in 1945 during the last weeks of World War II and was rebuilt in 1978.</li></li></ul><li>Academy of Arts, Dresden<br />Neo-Renaissance style<br /><ul><li>Features a glass dome with a bronze angel.</li></ul>Built 1891-1894<br />Destroyed in 1945, Reconstructed in 2005<br />
  51. 51. Das Rotes Rathaus<br />Architect: Hermann Friedrich Waesemann<br />Neo-Renaissance building<br />Aka: The red town hall<br />In March, 1945,vthe Town Hall was badly damaged in a bombing raid and it was 1955 before it could be used again<br />
  52. 52. SemperOper, Dresden<br />architect Gottfried Semper<br /><ul><li>opera house and concert hall</li></ul>Destroyed by fire in 1869 and by bombing from World War II in 1945<br />Reopened after bombing on February 13, 1985 <br />
  53. 53. Theater am Schiffbauerdamm<br />Theater, home to the Berliner Ensemble<br />Closed in 1944 due to Nazi takeover<br />architect Heinrich Seeling<br /><ul><li>original name was Neues Theater</li></li></ul><li>Pump House, Potsdam<br />disguised within a building designed in the style of a mosque<br />built between 1841-1843 upon request of Frederick Wilhelm IV<br /><ul><li>Uses the Borsig steam engine model of 1842</li></li></ul><li>Architecture in Berlin<br />Ryan Lovingood- New Objectivity<br />
  54. 54. The Funkturm<br />Radio transmitting tower <br />Built between 1924 and 1926 by Heinrich Straumer<br />The Funkturm is a prime example of the rise of new objectivity in Germany prior to the Nazi regime. New Objectivity focuses on straightforward, functionally-minded, matter-of-fact approach to construction, which became known in Germany as NeuesBauen “New Builiding” <br />
  55. 55. Mossehaus<br />Mossehaus was originally built in 1901 as the office buildings for the newspaper empire of Rudolf Mosse. <br />It was badly damaged during the first world war and was renovated by Jewish architect Erich Mendelsohn in 1921-1923.<br />The use of strips and sculpted elements in the fenestration gave it a dynamic, futuristic feel, exemplary of the German turn away from expressionism into a new form of art and architecture including contructionism and new objectivity. <br />
  56. 56. Shell Haus<br />Shell Haus is a result of a 1929 competition held between five architects to determine the designer of a prestigious new office block to house the headquarters of the mineral oil company, and Shell subsidiary, Rhenania-Ossag.<br />Victor was the German architect and professor Emil Fahrenkamp<br />Building was noted for its modernist design, for its striking wave-like façade, and for being one of the first steel-framed high-rise buildings in Berlin. <br />Shell-Haus’ simplistic graceful forms are stylistically reminiscent of the German modern realist movement New Objectivity <br />
  57. 57. Haus Dr. Sternefeld<br />Haus Dr Sternefeld was designed and built by Erich Mendelsson in 1923-1924 as the home of Dr. Sternefeld. It was designed as a cubic, Putzbau L-shaped villa with a flat roof ,deep window strips placed across a corner and a distinctive entrance (first of its kind in berlin).<br />