Modernism And Post Modernism


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Modernism And Post Modernism

  1. 1. The Birth of Modernism, Jugendstil, and Expressionism<br />Joanna Nixon<br />
  2. 2. A. E. G. High Tension Factory<br /><ul><li>Peter Behrens - 1910
  3. 3. Early Modern Style
  4. 4. Built toward the growing industrial industry, the building gives “architectural dignity” to a workplace by adding a monumental glass and iron frame over the building with the help of trusses.</li></ul><br />
  5. 5. HackescheHöfe<br />Kurt Berndt and August Endell - 1906<br />Jugendstil (art nouveau in German-speaking countries) <br />Eight courtyards built to originally built to bring together residential (officers and workers), commercial (multi-story factories), and cultural spaces (ballroom)<br />© Joanna Nixon, 2010<br />© Joanna Nixon, 2010<br />
  6. 6. Bröhan‐Museum<br />Houses Art Nouveau, Art Deco and Functionalism<br />Founded by Karl H. Bröhan<br />Arranged for presentation – goes through the Art Nouveau period through Art Deco and Functionalism by way of pieces of glass, ceramics, porcelain, silver, and metal work in combination with furniture, carpets, and lighting<br />Houses French and Belgian as well as German and Scandinavian Art Nouveau <br />Metal and glass early industrial design<br />© Joanna Nixon, 2010<br />
  7. 7. Einsteinturm<br />Erich Mendelsohn - 1919<br />1919<br />Tower is the main example for architectural expressionism with its fluid and progressive form that connected science and art<br />Comes from the “mystique around Einstein’s universe” – Erich Mendelsohn<br />Einstein was not impressed<br />Used as a solar observatory until WWII to support/refute Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity<br /><br />
  8. 8. Kunstgewerbemuseum<br />One site is at KulturforumPotsdamerPlatz, designed by Rolf Gutbrod and built up in the 1980’s<br />The other site is at Köpenick Palace, which was built between 1677 and 1689 in Baroque style<br />Art from the Renaissance, Baroque, and Rococo styles are displayed here<br /><br />
  9. 9. Works Cited<br /><ul><li>
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  21. 21.</li></li></ul><li>The Bauhaus and International Style<br />Ricky Mastropole<br />
  22. 22. NeueNationalgalerie(New National Gallery) <br />Architect <br />Mies van derRohe and it was opened in 1968<br />The NeueNationalgalerie was opened in 1968 as the counterpart to the Nationalgalerie located on the Museumsinsel Berlin (Museums Island Berlin) in the eastern part of the city. As part of the Reunification, a collection of 20th century art is now located in the spectacular building <br />
  23. 23. New National Gallery<br />the NeueNationalgalerie is considered one of the foremost examples of modernist structural abstraction.<br />Considered one of the most perfect statements of his architectural approach, the upper pavilion is a precise composition of monumental steel columns and a cantilevered (overhanging) roof plane with a glass enclosure. The simple square glass pavilion is a powerful expression of his ideas about flexible interior space, defined by transparent walls and supported by an external structural frame. The glass pavilion is a relatively small portion of the overall building, serving as a symbolic architectural entry point and monumental gallery for larger scale art. A large podium building below the pavilion accommodates most of the buildings actual built area in more functional spaces for galleries, support and utilitarian rooms.<br />
  24. 24. The Bauhaus <br />Founded by Walter Gropius who was an architect, but nothing seems to say whether or not he actually designed the building<br />Although neither the Nazi Party nor Hitler himself had a cohesive architectural policy before they came to power in 1933, Nazi writers like Wilhelm Frick and Alfred Rosenberg had already labeled the Bauhaus "un-German" and criticized its modernist styles, deliberately generating public controversy over issues like flat roofs. Increasingly through the early 1930s, they characterized the Bauhaus as a front for communists and social liberals. Indeed, a number of communist students loyal to Meyer moved to the Soviet Union when he was fired in 1930.<br /><ul><li>Even before the Nazis came to power, political pressure on Bauhaus had increased. But the Nazi regime was determined to crack down on what it saw as the foreign, probably Jewish influences of "cosmopolitan modernism." Despite Gropius's protestations that as a war veteran and a patriot his work had no subversive political intent, the Berlin Bauhaus was pressured to close in April 1933.
  25. 25. However, the most important influence on Bauhaus was modernism, a cultural movement whose origins lay as far back as the 1880s, and which had already made its presence felt in Germany  before the World War, despite the prevailing conservatism. The design innovations commonly associated with Gropius and the Bauhaus—the radically simplified forms, the rationality and functionality, and the idea that mass-production was reconcilable with the individual artistic spirit—were already partly developed in Germany before the Bauhaus was founded. </li></li></ul><li>Unite d'Habitation<br /><ul><li>Le Corbusier 1952
  26. 26. The giant, twelve-story apartment block for 1.600 people is the late modern counterpart of the mass housing schemes of the 1920s, similarly built to alleviate a severe postwar housing shortage.
  27. 27. The Marseille unitéd'habitation brings together Le Corbusier's vision for communal living with the needs and realities of post-war France. Up to 1600 people live in a single-slab 'vertical village', complete with an internal shopping street halfway up, a recreation ground and children's' nursery on the roof, and a generous surrounding area of park land made possible by the density of the accommodation in the slab itself
  28. 28. The Unité introduced the world to raw concrete - béton brut - with its texture defined by the wooden planks shaping it when it was poured. This unwitting prototype for the New Brutalism to follow came from necessity: not only was there insufficient steel in post-war France for a steel construction, but there was insufficient skilled labor for consistent, precise construction.</li></li></ul><li>Berlin Philharmonic Concert Hall<br /><ul><li>Hans Scharoun1960-1963
  29. 29. Lotteries were held to help raise money for the build of the concert hall
  30. 30. an asymmetric structure with a tent-like concrete roof, whose exterior exactly reflects the functional design of the interior. 
  31. 31. It is a singular building, asymmetrical and tentlike, with a main concert hall in the form of a pentagon. The seating offers excellent positions from which to view the stage through the irregularly increasing height of the benches. The stage is at the center of the hall, providing an extraordinary atmosphere for both the artists and the viewers. The acoustics are excellent</li></li></ul><li>Postmodernism II<br />By Clayton Price<br />
  32. 32. PotsdamerPlatz<br />Postmodernism uses a lot of glass<br />Makes the buildings seem more impressive<br />Many times the buildings are very large.<br />
  33. 33. PotsdamerPlatz<br />This is a glass dome above the common grounds of the sony center<br />It is 100m across and is very tall<br />
  34. 34. Galeries Lafayette <br />This shopping center is made of glass and is a spectacle to see<br />This is among the fanciest shopping street in Berlin, fitting in with many modern buildings<br />
  35. 35. Sony Center<br />The Sony center that has housing for the DB bank<br />It is a 26 story building with the exterior covered in glass<br />
  36. 36. Post-Modernism in Berlin<br />John Taylor<br />
  37. 37. Berlin Hauptbanhof<br />Main Train station of Berlin<br />Main railway station in Berlin<br />Europe's largest two-level railway<br />Located on Historic LehrterBahnhof<br />Opened in 2006<br />Designed by Gerken, Marg and Partners<br />
  38. 38. Bundeskanzleramt<br />Home to the Executive Branch of the German Government and its Chancellor<br />Designed by Wayss and Freytag<br />Completed in 2001<br />
  39. 39. Reichstag Dome and Building<br />Designed by Norman Foster<br />Completed in 1999<br />Provides a 360 degree view of Berlin Cityscape<br />
  40. 40. German History Museum<br />Designed by I. M. Pei<br />Completed in 2004<br />
  41. 41. Dutch Embassy<br />Designed by RemKoolhaas<br />Finished in 2003<br />
  42. 42. Scandinavian Embassy<br />Copper llamellas<br />Designed by Berger + Parkkinen<br />