Learning Object Repositories:  a learner centered perspective Julià Minguillón Universitat Oberta de Catalunya EdReNe – 4 ...
Table of contents <ul><li>Learning Objects and Repositories </li></ul><ul><li>LOR for Statistical resources </li></ul><ul>...
J. Minguillón   EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain Repositories Learning Objec...
J. Minguillón   EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain METADATA CONTENT Learning O...
Learning Objects <ul><li>Main goals : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help learners to acquire and develop a competence, skill, abil...
Learning Objects <ul><li>LOs are  diverse : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courses SCORM, LD, HTML, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex...
Learning Object Metadata <ul><li>Proposed metadata scheme: IEEE LOM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9 categories including  Technica...
Describing LOs <ul><li>Only fill out fields that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>…can be automatically filled </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Repositories <ul><li>Two main goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure  preservation  (keep the mummy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Traditional perspective <ul><li>Library centered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Books, journals, works, … (mostly textual) </li></...
Repositories <ul><li>Several possibilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General purpose Thematic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-...
Case of study: LOR on Statistics <ul><li>Why Statistics? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic competences for the Information Socie...
Our proposal <ul><li>From a  teaching  perspective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build a thematic open LOR on Statistics </li></u...
Key factors for LOR success <ul><li>Three dimensions (McNaught, 2006): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources: what? </li></ul></...
Key factors for LOR success <ul><li>Genuine need of a community </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiastic promoters </li></ul><ul><li...
Adopting E-Learning <ul><li>Three dimensions (Bates, 2005): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Virtual Learning Environments <ul><li>E-Learning is  de facto   web-based learning </li></ul><ul><li>VLEs enable learner c...
LO LO LO Learning Object Repository VLE User Interaction Data Mining J. Minguillón   EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March...
Learning Process J. Minguillón   EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain LD+ player...
Critical issues in LOR design <ul><li>Methodological: (Wiley, 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is more than just conte...
What users want from a LOR <ul><li>More exercises and examples (55.7%) </li></ul><ul><li>More simulations and interactive ...
Ideal LOR <ul><li>Basic premise : the act of browsing and/or searching for resources should be a learning experience in it...
Ideal LOR <ul><li>Basic premise : once a LO has been found, learners should be able to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate </li></u...
System architecture Social layer PIM LOR PIM PIM UI J. Minguillón   EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26t...
Enhancing DSpace <ul><li>Main idea :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use DSpace as an invisible back-end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
DSpace pros and cons <ul><li>Pros : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid, stable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large community </li></...
Improving interaction <ul><li>Avoid Google-like searches </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualized browsing </li></ul><ul><li>Refin...
<ul><li>Three complementary elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List of competences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tag cloud of ke...
mean variance proportion LO LO LO Student’s t test box-plot LO test J. Minguillón   EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March ...
Open issues <ul><li>IEEE LOM  vs  Dublin Core and OAI PMH </li></ul><ul><li>Filter and then find  vs  find and then filter...
References and bibliography <ul><li>Bates, A.W. (2005). Technology, E-learning and Distance Education, Routledge. </li></u...
Thank you! <ul><li>Contact information: </li></ul><ul><li>Julià Minguillón </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Learning Object Repositories: a learner centered perspective

1,807 views

Published on

Published in: Education
1 Comment
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,807
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
49
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
31
Comments
1
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Learning Object Repositories: a learner centered perspective

  1. 1. Learning Object Repositories: a learner centered perspective Julià Minguillón Universitat Oberta de Catalunya EdReNe – 4 th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  2. 2. Table of contents <ul><li>Learning Objects and Repositories </li></ul><ul><li>LOR for Statistical resources </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Learning Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Idealizing a LOR </li></ul><ul><li>Our reality: DSpace </li></ul><ul><li>Improving learner’s experience </li></ul><ul><li>Open issues </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  3. 3. J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain Repositories Learning Objects Computer Science Pedagogy Information Science
  4. 4. J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain METADATA CONTENT Learning Objects (digital)
  5. 5. Learning Objects <ul><li>Main goals : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help learners to acquire and develop a competence, skill, ability, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help teachers (and learners) to create new LOs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desired characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small to medium granularity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Described according to educational purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High level of connections between LOs </li></ul></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  6. 6. Learning Objects <ul><li>LOs are diverse : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courses SCORM, LD, HTML, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercises PDF, QTI, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples PDF, PPT, ODP, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia elements JPEG, MP3, MOV, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations Applets, Flash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source code C, Java, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data XLS, SPSS, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equations LaTeX, MathML, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other CML, XML, … </li></ul></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  7. 7. Learning Object Metadata <ul><li>Proposed metadata scheme: IEEE LOM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9 categories including Technical , Educational , Relation and Classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No required fields but plenty of them (> 70) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be “reduced” to unqualified Dublin Core </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But, what the □ □ □ □ is “ 5.4 Semantic density ”? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will fill out over 70 fields? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the title of an exercise? </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  8. 8. Describing LOs <ul><li>Only fill out fields that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>…can be automatically filled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>…are needed for preservation purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>…will be used for retrieving ( i.e. author?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish two or three levels of metadata: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum, mandatory fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desirable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete </li></ul></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain Progressive
  9. 9. Repositories <ul><li>Two main goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure preservation (keep the mummy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote reutilization (show the mummy) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These goals are somehow contradictory! </li></ul><ul><li>(even if the mummy is digital) </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional top-down position prevails </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  10. 10. Traditional perspective <ul><li>Library centered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Books, journals, works, … (mostly textual) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everything has a unique title </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everything has one or more authors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everything has a creation date </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everything has a source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost everything is a PDF file </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Main goal : easily finding a resource by using a minimum set of common descriptors </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  11. 11. Repositories <ul><li>Several possibilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General purpose Thematic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down Bottom-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institution driven Community driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Links to content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No discussion: open access </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  12. 12. Case of study: LOR on Statistics <ul><li>Why Statistics? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic competences for the Information Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsory course for several degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands of students each semester ( ≈ 4000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large collection of heterogeneous resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Known problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ There are too many resources ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I don’t know how to start ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I can’t link concepts and tools ” </li></ul></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  13. 13. Our proposal <ul><li>From a teaching perspective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build a thematic open LOR on Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom-up approach (teachers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate the LOR into the learning process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage learners into using the LOR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From a research perspective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning by doing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create better user interfaces for LORs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze user behavior </li></ul></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  14. 14. Key factors for LOR success <ul><li>Three dimensions (McNaught, 2006): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources: what? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions: how? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users : who? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? (Margaryan and Littlejohn, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>User Centered Design methodology </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  15. 15. Key factors for LOR success <ul><li>Genuine need of a community </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiastic promoters </li></ul><ul><li>Clear direction and focus </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback from the community </li></ul><ul><li>Good management processes </li></ul><ul><li>Open access </li></ul><ul><li>Easy addition of new resources </li></ul><ul><li>Critical mass </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable granularity </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain ↑ ↑ ≈ ↑ ≈ ↑ ↓ ↓ ↑
  16. 16. Adopting E-Learning <ul><li>Three dimensions (Bates, 2005): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not completely orthogonal: interconnected </li></ul><ul><li>LORs are basic infrastructure of VLEs </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  17. 17. Virtual Learning Environments <ul><li>E-Learning is de facto web-based learning </li></ul><ul><li>VLEs enable learner centered models </li></ul>Learning Process J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  18. 18. LO LO LO Learning Object Repository VLE User Interaction Data Mining J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  19. 19. Learning Process J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain LD+ player user profile default itinerary LOR ontologies personalized itineraries LOs itineraries evidences
  20. 20. Critical issues in LOR design <ul><li>Methodological: (Wiley, 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is more than just content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological (back-end + user interface): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is more than just browsing and searching LOs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workflow, licenses, metadata, policies, … </li></ul></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  21. 21. What users want from a LOR <ul><li>More exercises and examples (55.7%) </li></ul><ul><li>More simulations and interactive LOs (36.7%) </li></ul><ul><li>Submitting questions about a LO (50.6%) </li></ul><ul><li>Ranking LOs (43.0%) </li></ul><ul><li>Correcting small mistakes (41.8%) </li></ul><ul><li>Adding the LO as favorite (36.7%) by using: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>delicious (11.4%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other (51.9%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>None (26.6%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nothing: just browsing and searching (16.4%) </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  22. 22. Ideal LOR <ul><li>Basic premise : the act of browsing and/or searching for resources should be a learning experience in itself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LOs are not isolated pieces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Developing” requires knowing “from” and “to” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users should be able to organize LOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectivism (Siemens, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideal UI: conceptual map + “social layer” </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  23. 23. Ideal LOR <ul><li>Basic premise : once a LO has been found, learners should be able to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make comments / questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make favorite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscribe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The LO becomes part of learner’s context </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  24. 24. System architecture Social layer PIM LOR PIM PIM UI J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain LO Services
  25. 25. Enhancing DSpace <ul><li>Main idea : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use DSpace as an invisible back-end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access LOs through persistent handles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a new user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add 2.0 functionalities, maybe 3.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather and analyze usage data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal : allow learners to take control over LOs without using DSpace directly </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  26. 26. DSpace pros and cons <ul><li>Pros : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid, stable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent handles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customizable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OAI PMH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>API, RSS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ugly user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.0 philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dublin Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multilingualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intricate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly for e-prints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why DSpace? -> already in use at UOC </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  27. 27. Improving interaction <ul><li>Avoid Google-like searches </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualized browsing </li></ul><ul><li>Refine search results while being built </li></ul><ul><li>Return only a few relevant LOs </li></ul><ul><li>Visualize related LOs </li></ul><ul><li>Allow learners to use web 2.0 services </li></ul><ul><li>Widget-ize available services </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  28. 28. <ul><li>Three complementary elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List of competences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tag cloud of keywords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual taxonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional filters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul>New user interface Ontology LO J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain Competences Taxonomy Keywords LO LO
  29. 29. mean variance proportion LO LO LO Student’s t test box-plot LO test J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain x □ □ □ □ x x □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ <ul><li>... </li></ul><ul><li>To compute a coefficient </li></ul><ul><li>To choose a test </li></ul><ul><li>To compare two means </li></ul>
  30. 30. Open issues <ul><li>IEEE LOM vs Dublin Core and OAI PMH </li></ul><ul><li>Filter and then find vs find and then filter </li></ul><ul><li>Use of upper ontologies for describing LOs </li></ul><ul><li>Combining thematic repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Multilingualism: UI, content and metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Usability, accessibility and mobility issues </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas, people and funding are welcome!!! </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  31. 31. References and bibliography <ul><li>Bates, A.W. (2005). Technology, E-learning and Distance Education, Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Margaryan, A. and Littlejohn, A. (2008). Repositories and communities at cross-purposes: issues in sharing and reuse of digital learning resources. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24, 333-347. </li></ul><ul><li>McNaught, C. (2006). Are Learning Repositories Likely To Become Mainstream In Education? In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technologies, Setubal, Portugal, 11-13 April, IS9-IS17. </li></ul><ul><li>Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. 2(1), 3–10. </li></ul><ul><li>Wiley, D. (2007). Content is infrastructure. Terra incognita. Available at http://blog.worldcampus.psu.edu/index.php/2007/10/03/content-is-infrastructure/ </li></ul><ul><li>McGreal, R. (2004). Learning Objects: A Practical definition. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 1(9). </li></ul><ul><li>Monge, S.; Ovelar, R.; Azpeitia, I. (2008). “Repository 2.0: Social Dynamics to Support Community Building in Learning Object Repositories“. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects (formerly IJKLO), 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas, A. and Rothery, A. (2005). Online repositories for learning materials: the user perspective. Ariadne, 45. Available at: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue45/thomas-rothery/ </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain
  32. 32. Thank you! <ul><li>Contact information: </li></ul><ul><li>Julià Minguillón </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>CC-BY-NC-SA </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/jminguillona </li></ul>J. Minguillón EdReNe – 4th Strategic Seminar, March 24th - March 26th 2010, Barcelona, Spain

×