VIETNAM
1954-1975
French Indo-China
 1800s France becomes colonial power
in Vietnam
 Japan Controls during WWII
 Vietminh
 League formed...
Ho Chi Minh
 “He who Enlightens”
 Real Name: Nguyen
That Thanh
 Participated in Tax
revolts
 Wanted Free
Vietnam
After WWII
 Prevent Communist Expansion
--containment
 “Domino Theory” – Eisenhower
 US paying 75% of War Cost
 French...
Defeated French
 Dien Bien Phu
 Jungle fortress in Vietnam
 Signaled the end of French/European
Influence in Asia
 NO ...
Geneva Conference
 Work out peace agreement & decide
Indochina’s future
 Geneva Accords (Temporary)
 Cease Fire
 17th
...
Vietnam Leaders
Ngo Dinh Diem
 South Vietnam
 Anti-Communist
 Corrupt Gov
 Favored Catholics
 Cancelled 1956
Election
Ho Chi Minh
 North Vietnam
 Totalitarian
 Gave land to
Peasants
 Wanted Unified
Vietnam
Civil War – Vietnam
 National Liberation Front (Vietcong aka
“Charlie”)
 Vietnamese Communist in South
 Killed Southern...
Diem’s Overthrow
 Arrested & Killed Buddhist Monks
 US Threatens to withdraw
 Diem refuses to change
 US supports over...
US Involvement
 EisenhowerEisenhower
 Send

$ & weapons

Advisors to
train
 KennedyKennedy
 Increase
Advisors
Johns...
Gulf of Tonkin
 USS Maddox was attacked by torpedo
boats off coast of North Vietnam
 2nd
attacked was announced by LBJ
...
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
 Gave complete
control to President
LBJ
 Without approval
from congress
US Enters Vietnam
Operation Rolling Thunder
 Continuous bombing campaign for 3
years
 Did Nothing but damage country
 Downed Planes: POW’s
Air Strikes
 US introduces B-52 Bomber
 Saturation Bombing “Carpet Bombing”

Dropped thousands of Explosive of
North Vi...
Ho Chi Minh Trail
 Supply route
through Laos
and
Cambodia to
aid V.C.
Agent Orange
 Pesticide to kill plants (Defoliant)
 Goal: Expose hiding places
Napalm
 Chemical agent that burns
uncontrollably
 Search and Destroy Strategy
Effects of Air Bombing
1. Strengthened V.C.
2. Soviets & China support V.C.
3. Led to South Vietnamese joining the
V.C.
Battlefield Condition
 Guerilla Warfare
 US - Superior weapons/supplies
 Viet Cong –
 familiar with territory
 Allies...
Continued…….
 South Vietnamese did not want US
there
 US troops always on edge
 Girl selling apples – VC ally counting
...
Ground Warfare
 VC used Ambush tactics
 Relied on underground tunnels
 Booby Traps by VC
 Punji trap (pit with poisone...
William Westmoreland
 Commander US ground troops
 Search and Destroy or “Zippo”
Missions
 Pacification – to calm opposi...
Was it worth it?
 Declining Morale
 Constant Danger
 Vietcong continually recruiting Citizens
to replenish troops
The Draft
 55% of those who registered were
excused
 College
 Health
Non-Combat Positions
 Most Americans served non-combat
positions
 Clerical, Administration, engineering,
medicine
 Wome...
Public Opinion
 Media
 Reporters accompanied Soldiers
 TV images brought home “living room
War”
Hawks vs. Doves
 Hawks
 People who
supported wars
goals
 More force
 Doves
 People who
opposed the
war
 “not crucial...
Anti-War Movement
 College Campuses
 Anti-war
debates/rallies
 Teach-ins
 Students for a
Democratic Society
 Most Ame...
Kent State
 4 students killed, 9 injured
 Ohio national guard fires into crowd of
college students
Jackson State College
 2 students killed, 9 injured
 Police fire into dormitory
Turning Point: TETTET
OFFENSIVEOFFENSIVE
 1968, Tet – Vietnamese Lunar New Year
 1/30/1968 V.C. launch massive attack
 ...
Effects of TET
1. No Part of Vietnam SAFE
2. Morale Hurt
3. Public Dismay
Unstable Government
1. Westmorland requests troops
1. Is US winning????
2. LBJ advisors cannot agree on solution
3. Negoti...
1968 Election
 D- Robert Kennedy?
 Assassinated by Jordanian Sirhan
Sirhan
 New Candidates

Eugene McCarthy & Hubert
H...
The Race
 D – Hubert Humphrey
 R – Richard Nixon
 I – George Wallace
 only 510,000 separated
The End of the WAR
Nixon Promises End to War
 Henry Kissenger
 Vietnamization

Turning fighting over to South
Vietnam while US troops come...
My Lai
 450 men, women, and children killed in
a village during a search and destroy
mission
 No V.C. found
 Never offi...
Pentagon Papers
 Daniel Ellsberg
 Secret papers
that traced US
involvement in
Vietnam back to
Truman
 Revelation: US
mi...
US involvement in Vietnam
Ends
 1972 election
 Nixon wins with announcement of
peace talks
 26th
Amendment
 Lowers vot...
January 1973
 US and N. Vietnam reach Peace
 US agrees to withdraw
 Both sides release all POWs
 US helps rebuild Viet...
Fall of Saigon
 North Vietnamese troops invaded South
Vietnam (reached Saigon)
 US evacuated American citizens
 Souther...
Legacy of Vietnam
 635,000 S. Vietnamese Died
 58,000 Americans Died
 600 POWs
 2,500 MIA
 300,000 wounded
 US soldi...
The Healing
Vietnam war
Vietnam war
Vietnam war
Vietnam war
Vietnam war
Vietnam war
Vietnam war
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Vietnam war

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Vietnam Era

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Vietnam war

  1. 1. VIETNAM 1954-1975
  2. 2. French Indo-China  1800s France becomes colonial power in Vietnam  Japan Controls during WWII  Vietminh  League formed by Ho Chi Minh  Communist sympathizer Vietnam LaosCambodia French Indochina
  3. 3. Ho Chi Minh  “He who Enlightens”  Real Name: Nguyen That Thanh  Participated in Tax revolts  Wanted Free Vietnam
  4. 4. After WWII  Prevent Communist Expansion --containment  “Domino Theory” – Eisenhower  US paying 75% of War Cost  French Losing
  5. 5. Defeated French  Dien Bien Phu  Jungle fortress in Vietnam  Signaled the end of French/European Influence in Asia  NO US help – Too soon?  Vietnminh Experience  Captured 11,721 men
  6. 6. Geneva Conference  Work out peace agreement & decide Indochina’s future  Geneva Accords (Temporary)  Cease Fire  17th Parallel (DMZ)  July 1956 – General Elections
  7. 7. Vietnam Leaders
  8. 8. Ngo Dinh Diem  South Vietnam  Anti-Communist  Corrupt Gov  Favored Catholics  Cancelled 1956 Election
  9. 9. Ho Chi Minh  North Vietnam  Totalitarian  Gave land to Peasants  Wanted Unified Vietnam
  10. 10. Civil War – Vietnam  National Liberation Front (Vietcong aka “Charlie”)  Vietnamese Communist in South  Killed Southern Officials
  11. 11. Diem’s Overthrow  Arrested & Killed Buddhist Monks  US Threatens to withdraw  Diem refuses to change  US supports overthrow  NOV 1963 Diem Assassinated
  12. 12. US Involvement  EisenhowerEisenhower  Send  $ & weapons  Advisors to train  KennedyKennedy  Increase Advisors JohnsonJohnson Expanded Effort Tonkin Gulf Resolution
  13. 13. Gulf of Tonkin  USS Maddox was attacked by torpedo boats off coast of North Vietnam  2nd attacked was announced by LBJ  Not accurate  US was on spy mission (we provoked)
  14. 14. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution  Gave complete control to President LBJ  Without approval from congress
  15. 15. US Enters Vietnam
  16. 16. Operation Rolling Thunder  Continuous bombing campaign for 3 years  Did Nothing but damage country  Downed Planes: POW’s
  17. 17. Air Strikes  US introduces B-52 Bomber  Saturation Bombing “Carpet Bombing”  Dropped thousands of Explosive of North Vietnam  Fragmentation Bombing “Cluster Bombs”  Explosive projecting metal shavings  Target: Ho Chi Minh Trail
  18. 18. Ho Chi Minh Trail  Supply route through Laos and Cambodia to aid V.C.
  19. 19. Agent Orange  Pesticide to kill plants (Defoliant)  Goal: Expose hiding places
  20. 20. Napalm  Chemical agent that burns uncontrollably  Search and Destroy Strategy
  21. 21. Effects of Air Bombing 1. Strengthened V.C. 2. Soviets & China support V.C. 3. Led to South Vietnamese joining the V.C.
  22. 22. Battlefield Condition  Guerilla Warfare  US - Superior weapons/supplies  Viet Cong –  familiar with territory  Allies with Laos/ Cambodia  Support of local population
  23. 23. Continued…….  South Vietnamese did not want US there  US troops always on edge  Girl selling apples – VC ally counting troops  Kid selling candy – holding hand grenade
  24. 24. Ground Warfare  VC used Ambush tactics  Relied on underground tunnels  Booby Traps by VC  Punji trap (pit with poisoned stakes)  Land Mine  Trip Wire
  25. 25. William Westmoreland  Commander US ground troops  Search and Destroy or “Zippo” Missions  Pacification – to calm opposition  win “hearts” of the South Vietnamese and calm opposition
  26. 26. Was it worth it?  Declining Morale  Constant Danger  Vietcong continually recruiting Citizens to replenish troops
  27. 27. The Draft  55% of those who registered were excused  College  Health
  28. 28. Non-Combat Positions  Most Americans served non-combat positions  Clerical, Administration, engineering, medicine  Women  10,000 served  Nurses
  29. 29. Public Opinion  Media  Reporters accompanied Soldiers  TV images brought home “living room War”
  30. 30. Hawks vs. Doves  Hawks  People who supported wars goals  More force  Doves  People who opposed the war  “not crucial to American security”
  31. 31. Anti-War Movement  College Campuses  Anti-war debates/rallies  Teach-ins  Students for a Democratic Society  Most Americans opposed the anti- war movement  “America, Love It or Leave it”, “My country, Right or Wrong”
  32. 32. Kent State  4 students killed, 9 injured  Ohio national guard fires into crowd of college students
  33. 33. Jackson State College  2 students killed, 9 injured  Police fire into dormitory
  34. 34. Turning Point: TETTET OFFENSIVEOFFENSIVE  1968, Tet – Vietnamese Lunar New Year  1/30/1968 V.C. launch massive attack  84,000 communists attack 100 cities/ 12 US Bases  US wins battle  In Public’s eyes US Lost
  35. 35. Effects of TET 1. No Part of Vietnam SAFE 2. Morale Hurt 3. Public Dismay
  36. 36. Unstable Government 1. Westmorland requests troops 1. Is US winning???? 2. LBJ advisors cannot agree on solution 3. Negotiation 1. Seek peace agreement with North Vietnam 4. LBJ decides not run for 3rd term
  37. 37. 1968 Election  D- Robert Kennedy?  Assassinated by Jordanian Sirhan Sirhan  New Candidates  Eugene McCarthy & Hubert Humphrey
  38. 38. The Race  D – Hubert Humphrey  R – Richard Nixon  I – George Wallace  only 510,000 separated
  39. 39. The End of the WAR
  40. 40. Nixon Promises End to War  Henry Kissenger  Vietnamization  Turning fighting over to South Vietnam while US troops come home  Laos and Cambodia  Secret mission to destroy V.C. supply lines  Bombing  “Mad Man Theory”
  41. 41. My Lai  450 men, women, and children killed in a village during a search and destroy mission  No V.C. found  Never officially told to public
  42. 42. Pentagon Papers  Daniel Ellsberg  Secret papers that traced US involvement in Vietnam back to Truman  Revelation: US misleading Public
  43. 43. US involvement in Vietnam Ends  1972 election  Nixon wins with announcement of peace talks  26th Amendment  Lowers voting age from 21 to 18
  44. 44. January 1973  US and N. Vietnam reach Peace  US agrees to withdraw  Both sides release all POWs  US helps rebuild Vietnam  S. Vietnam political structure NOT settled
  45. 45. Fall of Saigon  North Vietnamese troops invaded South Vietnam (reached Saigon)  US evacuated American citizens  Southern Vietnamese people rushed embassy to try to escape  US evacuates 130,000 SV people  South Vietnam Falls, Vietnam United
  46. 46. Legacy of Vietnam  635,000 S. Vietnamese Died  58,000 Americans Died  600 POWs  2,500 MIA  300,000 wounded  US soldiers  Negative reception at home  Trouble adjusting  Born on the Fourth of July
  47. 47. The Healing

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