Liberty and LiteracyNow and in the future
Crash Course• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_3Ox6vGteek
Class Issues• Infrastructure• Learning & Assessment• Challenges• Differences• Equality & Equity• Students• Values & Ethics...
PoliticalEconomyAgrarian societyHomogenousFamily unitSlaveryRevolutionBourgeoisieIdeologyClassical liberalismPatriarchyRea...
Fundamental Tenets of Classical LiberalIdeology• Faith in Reason• Natural Law• RepublicanVirtue• Progress• Nationalism• Fr...
Faith in Reason• A better guide than tradition, custom,and dogmatic faith• Mind as “blank slate”• Humankind capable of gre...
Natural Law• “Universe is a machine”• Understanding yields control• Science replaces theology as guide toaction(c) 2006 Th...
Republican Virtue(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5eP...
Progress• Continual individual and societalprogress toward perfection• Changing the world to what ought tobe• Revolution a...
Nationalism• Allegiance to a nation, not a state• A new national identity• Uneasy balance between nationalgovernment and l...
Freedom• “Negative freedom”Intellectual• Free from external coercion of church and statePolitical• Representative govern...
Jefferson’s Plan for Popular EducationSelf-EducationElementarySchoolsGrammarSchoolsUniversity(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Comp...
First Tier—Elementary Schools• Foundation of entire education structure• Decentralized districts• Three years of free educ...
Second Tier—Grammar Schools• Boarding schools• Languages, advanced curriculum• Developing local leadership• Preparation fo...
Third Tier—University Education• Common education from grammar schoolsallowed for advanced instruction• Specialization in ...
Fourth Tier—Self-Education• Lifelong learning as the culmination ofeducational aims• Jefferson’s support of public librari...
Concluding Remarks• Political economy and ideology influencedearly education processes, inside andoutside of schools• Jeff...
Developing Your Professional Vocabulary• Bill for a More GeneralDiffusion ofKnowledge• bourgeoisie• capitalism• civic free...
Developing Your Professional Vocabulary• grammar schools• happiness• intellectual freedom• meritocracy• nationalism• natur...
• "An educated citizenry is a vital requisite forour survival as a free people.“
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EVoj9nNOKCU• http://www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/educated-citizenry-vital-requisite-...
• 1787 December 20. (to James Madison)"Above all things I hope the education of thecommon people will be attended to ;conv...
Chapter NineLiberty and Literacy Today:Contemporary Perspectives(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserv...
Literacy as a Social Construction• Past and present literacy rates affected bydifferences in class, race, gender, region,a...
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U8N9-ubmuoM• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wWDUixwo9eU• https://www.youtube.com/watch?...
Hegemony TheoryWhy, in the face of massive inequalities, doesrebellion not occur in a democracy?Hegemony theory posits tha...
Mass Media and Cultural Hegemony• Corporate chains control significant numbers ofnewspapers and magazines; television, pub...
Schooling and Cultural Hegemony• Hierarchical distribution of power in schools fosterscompliance• Nature of students’ work...
Schooling and Cultural Hegemony• American society educates in contradictory waysTaught that this is a democratic society...
Four Contemporary Perspectives onLiteracy• Conventional literacy• Functional literacy• Cultural literacy• Critical literac...
Conventional Literacy• 1980 U.S. Census found 99.5% of adults literate— “theability to read and write a simple message in ...
Functional Literacy• “Functional literacy” first used by Armyduring WWII to mean literacy that wouldaccommodate military d...
Functional Literacy• Limitations of functional literacyperspectiveSeems to imply minimum competence as agoalTends to lay...
Cultural Literacy• E. D. Hirsch’s argument that literacy includes abasic knowledge foundation that gives meaningto what is...
Cultural Literacy• Limitations of functional literacyperspective“Trivial pursuit” approach?Adds meaning, but falls short...
Critical Literacy• Literacy may enable some parts of society tocontrol others• Critical literacy draws attention to power ...
Critical Literacy Method• Highlights connection between knowledgeand power• Freires pedagogy of “dialogue” and mutuallearn...
(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5ehttp://www.youtube...
Usefulness/Drawbacks of Perspectives• Conventional  evidence of success of U.S. educationalsystem; obscures the way illit...
Concluding Remarks• The concept of literacy is embedded insocial contexts and is relative to particularsocieties and their...
Developing Your Professional Vocabulary• conventional literacy• critical literacy• cultural literacy• cultural or ideologi...
Liberty and litearcy2
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Liberty and litearcy2

  1. 1. Liberty and LiteracyNow and in the future
  2. 2. Crash Course• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_3Ox6vGteek
  3. 3. Class Issues• Infrastructure• Learning & Assessment• Challenges• Differences• Equality & Equity• Students• Values & Ethics in Education• Liberal Education
  4. 4. PoliticalEconomyAgrarian societyHomogenousFamily unitSlaveryRevolutionBourgeoisieIdeologyClassical liberalismPatriarchyReasonRepublican virtueNatural aristocracyCapitalism/FreedomLaissez-faireSchoolingSchoolsRegional differencesLocal financingWhite malesReligious & DemocraticThree Rs
  5. 5. Fundamental Tenets of Classical LiberalIdeology• Faith in Reason• Natural Law• RepublicanVirtue• Progress• Nationalism• Freedom(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  6. 6. Faith in Reason• A better guide than tradition, custom,and dogmatic faith• Mind as “blank slate”• Humankind capable of great feats• Galileo, Copernicus, Newton(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  7. 7. Natural Law• “Universe is a machine”• Understanding yields control• Science replaces theology as guide toaction(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  8. 8. Republican Virtue(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5ePerfectibility of the individualDuties to God and to natureThe work ethicMen’s virtues/ Women’s virtues
  9. 9. Progress• Continual individual and societalprogress toward perfection• Changing the world to what ought tobe• Revolution as an option• Commitment to social meliorism• Education as the vehicle(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  10. 10. Nationalism• Allegiance to a nation, not a state• A new national identity• Uneasy balance between nationalgovernment and local self-determination(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  11. 11. Freedom• “Negative freedom”Intellectual• Free from external coercion of church and statePolitical• Representative governmentCivic• Freedom to “live as one pleases”• Bill of RightsEconomic• “Laissez-faire” economy• The Wealth of Nations(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  12. 12. Jefferson’s Plan for Popular EducationSelf-EducationElementarySchoolsGrammarSchoolsUniversity(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  13. 13. First Tier—Elementary Schools• Foundation of entire education structure• Decentralized districts• Three years of free education• Screening for future leaders• Preparing citizens for effective functioning(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  14. 14. Second Tier—Grammar Schools• Boarding schools• Languages, advanced curriculum• Developing local leadership• Preparation for university(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  15. 15. Third Tier—University Education• Common education from grammar schoolsallowed for advanced instruction• Specialization in a “science”• Preparation for leadership—law,government, the professions• Education for meritocracy(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  16. 16. Fourth Tier—Self-Education• Lifelong learning as the culmination ofeducational aims• Jefferson’s support of public libraries• “Knowledge is power; knowledge is safety;knowledge is happiness”(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  17. 17. Concluding Remarks• Political economy and ideology influencedearly education processes, inside andoutside of schools• Jefferson’s thinking reveals the tensions inclassical liberalism• Admirable ideals versus the “dominantideology”(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  18. 18. Developing Your Professional Vocabulary• Bill for a More GeneralDiffusion ofKnowledge• bourgeoisie• capitalism• civic freedom• classical liberal• conservative• democratic localism• “divine right” of thenobility• elementary schooling• faculty psychology• faith in human reason• feudalism• freedom and“negative freedom”(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  19. 19. Developing Your Professional Vocabulary• grammar schools• happiness• intellectual freedom• meritocracy• nationalism• natural aristocracy• natural law• patriarchy• political freedom• progress• religious revelation• republicanism• Rockfish Gap Report• scientific reason• social meliorism• virtue(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  20. 20. • "An educated citizenry is a vital requisite forour survival as a free people.“
  21. 21. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EVoj9nNOKCU• http://www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/educated-citizenry-vital-requisite-our-survival-free-people-quotation
  22. 22. • 1787 December 20. (to James Madison)"Above all things I hope the education of thecommon people will be attended to ;convinced that on their good sense we mayrely with the most security for thepreservation of a due degree of liberty."[4]
  23. 23. Chapter NineLiberty and Literacy Today:Contemporary Perspectives(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  24. 24. Literacy as a Social Construction• Past and present literacy rates affected bydifferences in class, race, gender, region,and social need• Less need and less expectation ofwidespread literacy in 18th and 19thcenturies• Socioeconomic marginality of illiteracy a20th-century phenomenon(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  25. 25. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U8N9-ubmuoM• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wWDUixwo9eU• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kc5TVghbj-Q
  26. 26. Hegemony TheoryWhy, in the face of massive inequalities, doesrebellion not occur in a democracy?Hegemony theory posits that:1. Institutional elites control U.S. political and economicinstitutions.2. They share a common ideology that justifies theirposition.3. Public is socialized into accepting these views throughschooling, mass media, workplace.4. Ideology serves to limit discussion/debate and promoteacceptance of status quo.(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  27. 27. Mass Media and Cultural Hegemony• Corporate chains control significant numbers ofnewspapers and magazines; television, publishingand films• Concentration of ownership equals restriction ofrange of viewpoints• Media criticisms of American institutions staywithin acceptable bounds• What will happen with computers and theInternet?(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  28. 28. Schooling and Cultural Hegemony• Hierarchical distribution of power in schools fosterscompliance• Nature of students’ work promotes competition; failure ispersonal, not linked to a structure that needs winners andlosers• Social stratification within the school culture encouragesdifferences rather than commonalities• Capitalist democracy lauded; instillation of compliance instudents encouraged• America’s social history selectively presented in textbooks(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  29. 29. Schooling and Cultural Hegemony• American society educates in contradictory waysTaught that this is a democratic societyDaily experiences reinforce non-participationThe option of questioning this dichotomy is notpresented• Citizens are prevented from participating indemocratic processesUltimately, is this really a democracy if the populacecannot participate?(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  30. 30. Four Contemporary Perspectives onLiteracy• Conventional literacy• Functional literacy• Cultural literacy• Critical literacyEach expresses different understandings ofschooling, political economy, and ideology.(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  31. 31. Conventional Literacy• 1980 U.S. Census found 99.5% of adults literate— “theability to read and write a simple message in anylanguage”• Issues with these findings:Were data collection methods appropriate?What level of literacy is reflected in the data?Could respondents read and write in English?• Conventional perspective useful to support claims ofprogress and to mask need for adult education programs(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  32. 32. Functional Literacy• “Functional literacy” first used by Armyduring WWII to mean literacy that wouldaccommodate military demands• A literacy that measures ability to performtasks requiring literacy skills or to “functioneffectively”• Social class and literacy acquisition go handin hand; race and ethnicity matter(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  33. 33. Functional Literacy• Limitations of functional literacyperspectiveSeems to imply minimum competence as agoalTends to lay blame on the illiterate themselves,rather than social inequalitiesOveremphasis on mechanical skills of readingand writing; less on understanding and criticalthinking(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  34. 34. Cultural Literacy• E. D. Hirsch’s argument that literacy includes abasic knowledge foundation that gives meaningto what is read• “Intellectual baggage” that supports a familiaritywith the events and ideas that have shapedAmerican culture• Historical names and events, authors and worksof literature, geographical places, phrases,scientific terms, etc.(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  35. 35. Cultural Literacy• Limitations of functional literacyperspective“Trivial pursuit” approach?Adds meaning, but falls short of advancingdemocratic understandingEmphasizes recognition rather than criticalthinking, and is very testableReinforces Eurocentric bias; overlooks globalsociety(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  36. 36. Critical Literacy• Literacy may enable some parts of society tocontrol others• Critical literacy draws attention to power relationsin society by focusing on racial, ethnic, gender,and class oppression• Critical literacy attends to how knowledge andpower are interrelated• Literacy is the capacity to think and actreflectively—to understand the world and act tochange social relations of oppression(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  37. 37. Critical Literacy Method• Highlights connection between knowledgeand power• Freires pedagogy of “dialogue” and mutuallearning• Reading and writing as tools to understand,express, and change social relations• Balancing criticism of the dominant cultureand learning its “linguistic code”(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  38. 38. (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5ehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zDZFcDGpL4U• Paulo Freire• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wFOhVdQt27c
  39. 39. Usefulness/Drawbacks of Perspectives• Conventional  evidence of success of U.S. educationalsystem; obscures the way illiteracy is distributed• Functional  measurement of ability to function atminimum level in society; settles for minimal view ofliteracy• Cultural  familiarity with the traditional knowledge baseof our culture; promotes passive absorption of randomknowledge• Critical  emphasis on relationship between literacy andempowerment• Each of these supports a different educational aim(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  40. 40. Concluding Remarks• The concept of literacy is embedded insocial contexts and is relative to particularsocieties and their conditions• Education is no guarantee of freedom whenparticipatory self-government is notfostered by schools and media• Critical literacy key to challenging this stateof affairs(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e
  41. 41. Developing Your Professional Vocabulary• conventional literacy• critical literacy• cultural literacy• cultural or ideologicalhegemony• Paulo Freire• functional literacy• hidden curriculum• the “informationmarketplace” vs. amarketplace of ideas• literacy as a socialconstruction• mass media• NAEP (NationalAssessment ofEducational Programs)(c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Tozer/Senese/Violas, School and Society, 5e

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