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  1. 1. The Shoemaker’s SonNeeds New ShoesJen FabriziBoston UXPA ConferenceMay 29, 20131
  2. 2. Or…The Mandolinistneeds new strings?applying design thinking topractice developmentJen FabriziBoston UXPA ConferenceMay 29, 20132
  3. 3. applying design thinking topractice developmentJen FabriziBoston UXPA ConferenceMay 29, 2013Or…The Mandolinistneeds new strings?3
  4. 4. We will:• speak a common language• share a common view of what our work is and what it’s for• learn from each other• innovate based on multi-disciplinary collaboration• value diversity of thought as the most valued form of diversityA team of master practitioners, both in their ownpractices and in playing together!!Work willbe less aboutfitting with thelatest process;it will be more aboutcollectively solvingproblems.Sarah Bloomer & Jen Fabrizi Changing the UX Mindset 4What’s up with the music?
  5. 5. familylearningpersonasscenariospracticequalitativeusabilityteamhuman factorsrichpicturesuniversal principlesdesign-thinkingdiversity of thoughtstoryboardsmultidisciplinary persuasionethicsplain languagetaxonomymetadatamusicartcollaborationworkknowledgequantitativefindabilitymethodstoolssketchingcollective intelligenceprocessbehaviorculture5Senior Experience Design ArchitectKnowledge & Innovation TeamMassMutual Financial Groupjennifer.fabrizi@gmail.comwww.linkedin.com/in/jenniferfabriziwww.twitter.com/jenniferfabriziprofileslovestory-tellingempathyinnovationpossibilitieshuman-centeredresearchchangeexplorationambiguity5
  6. 6. INTRODUCING CMM/CMMIthe beginning of the story6
  7. 7. http://www.tarrani.net/tzmodel/EvolutionOfProcessMaturity.jpgCapability Maturity Model (CMM)• Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at Carnegie Mellon University 1986• CMM = a process maturity framework• describes effective software process:• process assessment & improvement• capability evaluationCMMI was initiated in April of 1998 as a unified (or integrated) CMM for software ANDsystem engineering.Good concept for other contexts, too 7
  8. 8. 8What does “maturity in UX” look like at a corporate level?Buttiglieri, 2012http://www.slideshare.net/UPABoston/ux-maturity-modelbuttiglieri
  9. 9. http://johnnyholland.org/2010/04/planning-your-ux-strategy/What does “maturity in UX” look like at a corporate level?9
  10. 10. feasibilityplanningbusiness requirementssolutions architecturetechnical designdevelopmenttestingstakeholder researchuser research; personasscenarios & concept designsux architectureui design layout &specificationsui implementationtypical waterfall ux integration with waterfallimplementationvalidationvalidationverificationverificationverificationunit testsystems testintegration testingvalidationvalidationvalidationformativeformativesummativesystems testintegration tesWhat does this mean to a UX Manager / Lead?This looks theoretical. What does it look like, practically?10
  11. 11. Gate 1 Gate 2 Gate 3 Gate 4 Gate 5Gating Model•Scope Statement (I)•Business Case (I)•ROM (I)Our Deliverables•User Research Plan•Scope Statement (I)•Business Case (I, E)•CBA (E)•Origination Estimate (I)•Risk Plan (E)•Key Roles•Architectural ConceptualSolution Diagram (E)Our Deliverables•Existing knowledgedocumentation•Scope Statement (I)•Business Case (I)•CBA (E)•Architecture Blueprint Sign-off (E)•Baseline Estimate (I)•Resource Plan•Benefit Realization /Measurement Plan•Project Charter Sign-off (E)•Milestone Roadmap•Risk PlanOur Deliverables•User ResearchSummary•Usability Study Plan•High level wireframes•Test Strategy (E)•Version Readiness Plan•Operational Readiness Plan•Version Readiness Sign-offPlan (E)•SOX Testing Sign-off (E)Our Deliverables•Detailed Wireframes•Usability Study Report(s)•Benefits RealizationResults (I, E)Origination Planning Execution Implementationprovided by AJ Siegel, Director PI Usability Research at Travelerswww.linkedin.com/in/ajsiegel11
  12. 12. So far, we’ve talked about PROCESS.Is this enough?12
  13. 13. DOCUMENTED WORK PROCESSESVS. LIVED-WORK PRACTICESask how does work really happen?13
  14. 14. consider developing the practice of user experienceIndividuals practicing their craft to achievehigher levels of mastery...I have topractice!I have topractice!I have topractice!I have topractice!I have topractice!
  15. 15. understand the work of UX practitioners as we would for anyotheruse personas tomodel attitudes,behaviors,motivations, etc,of the UXpractitioners yourorganizationneedsFabrizi, 2013 15
  16. 16. represent practitioners’ pain points, motivation and the like inscenariosuse scenarios &storyboards to reflectwhat you’ve learnedabout practitioners’pain points, keytasks, barriers tosuccessfulinteractions withother roles, etc.also work in culturalelements, forexample:deadline pressurefrom externalmanagement notaligned to agileframeworkFabrizi, 2013 16
  17. 17. use storyboards to convey (& validate) the scenariosFabrizi, 20131. 2.3. 4. 5.6. 7.17
  18. 18. adapted from Laurel, B. (Ed.). (2003). Design Research: Methods and Perspectives (First Edition.). The MIT Press.a sample ofknowledge flowsmap knowledge flows for stakeholders at the methodology level18
  19. 19. decompose & analyze sub-capabilitiesVISUALDESIGNINTERACTIONDESIGNINFORMATIONARCHITECTUREUSER / USABILITYRESEARCHValues(what design is about as avalue system)aestheticsaffectcultureemotioninteractivityexperiencetransparencybehaviorfindabilityinformationuser-centered taxonomyexperiencehuman system requirements andlimitations, user motivationsMethods(what design is as activity)creating image and form designing for usability, userexperience, and processefficiencydesigning for informationhierarchy, and findabilityfield research methods, usabilityimprovements/recommendationsDeliverables(what designs are asartifacts/representations)sketches, look and feel, visualartifacts, appearanceprototypeswireframes and applicationstructure, story boards,prototypessite maps and structure,wireframes, taxonomy andnomenclaturepersonas, scenarios, usabilityscripts, ethnographies of theworkplace, user motivationsMind sets(what they think about)appearance, emotion interactivity, user intent findability, contentpresentationusability, valueKnowledge set(what they know about)visual form cognition, behavior information hierarchy foundational human factors(psychology and sociology)Skill sets(the skills they possess)drawing, sketching,brainstorming, illustratingprocesses: contextual design,interaction design, formativeevaluations, iterative design,participatory designclassifications and affinitydiagramming, site mapping,wireframing, card sortingFormative and summative usabilitystudies, large scale measurements,field methods, ethnographicresearchTool sets(the tools they use)image and illustration tools,photography, video, culturalartifactsrapid field work, low- and high-fidelity wireframes andprototypescard sorting tools, low-fidelitywireframesusability lab, specialized recordingsoftware, note taking toolsValue to theorganizationpersuasive technology, visualexpression of brand valuessupport of lived work (as inCSCW), adoption, satisfactioneffective delivery of content,satisfactionusable solutions, customer-experience based differentiation(P.S. These sub-capabilities are neededregardless of the process used.)Adapted from Blevis, E., & Stolterman, E. (2009)19
  20. 20. BusinessAnalystTest Mgr /EngineerArchitect Designer/DeveloperProjectManagerCommon Goal butstill focused onindividual practicelearning to collaborate by following a processIdeasPlan ReqArch&DesDev TestA team practicing and developing throughon-the-job experience and exposure.User ExpDesignerFabrizi, 2013
  21. 21. Product OwnerBusiness AnalystTestersArchitect / Tech DesignerDevelopersScrum MasterUX ArchitectEnterpriseArchitectBusiness AnalystScrum TeampigsProduct Owner +“Cabinet” of AdvisorschickensHow best tofacilitate thisteam to co-design?I understandhow thefeatures fittogetherHere’s thestructure ofthe design.Here’s whatwe knowabout users.UI DesignerNow I seehow thebusinessvision is goingto work!rich pictureMonk & Howard (1998)wrote about the richpicture: a tool forreasoning about thework context.Use this to modelcomplex workrelationships &collaboration touch-points.This is a sample of a UXpractitioner in thecontext of an agileproject.Fabrizi, 2013 21
  22. 22. CompetitorsProductOwnerBusiness AnalystTestersArchitect /Tech DesignerDevelopersUX ArchitectEnterpriseArchitectBusinessAnalystSeniorLeadershipTeamsCustomersWhichcompanydo I trust?What are peoplelike me doing andsaying?What docustomerswant?What are ourcompetitorsdoing?Will it be ontime and on$$??Gotta blockfor myteam!!Do they getwhat I want?Let’s visualize ittogether!What do Iwant?They wantwhat, when?Scrum MasterExternalPressuresIn-GroupPressuresInternal PressuresScrum TeamTheEnterprisePO CabinetLEGENDMentalModelsIdeas22rich picture can tell the big-picture story, tooFabrizi, 2013
  23. 23. OperationsEngagementMgmtDemandMgmtVendorMgmtProject-levelgovernanceLabMgmt &RecruitingStaffing ModelCommunicationsAnd ReportingEnterprise UXKnowledgeMgmtBusinessModelprojectchargeback?Center ofExcellence?organizationalaffiliationFunding$$$$operations: how we logistically fitFabrizi, 2013 23
  24. 24. taxonomy frameworks: connections among multiple practicesproject managementbusiness analysisuser experiencetest engineeringenables knowledgesharing, collaboration,social aspects of work,etc.24
  25. 25. the user experience practice: a unified storyoperations,sponsorship,funding &infrastructuresub-capabilitiesprocesses,methodologiesuser experiencecapabilitymeta-modeltaxonomies /ontologyknowledgein-flows &out-flowspractitionerDNAFabrizi, 201325
  26. 26. What is the primary goal of process optimization?error elimination26
  27. 27. Why do many large companiesbuy their innovation? Because their dominantculture of 99% defect-free operational excellencesquashes any attempts at innovation just like aSumo wrestler sitting on a small gymnast. Theycannot accept failures. The reality is that failuresare a necessary part of innovation.http://www.forbes.com/sites/darden/2012/06/20/creating-an-innovation-culture-accepting-failure-is-necessary/““27
  28. 28. CULTUREdesign thinking applied to culture change28
  29. 29. the Communities of Practice concept29
  30. 30. The User-Centered Design ProcessMenu 1 Menu 2 Our CompanyWork > Professional Practices > User Experience Community of PracticePhotos from ABC Co’s World Usability Day2012: The Face of Financeread moreWelcome to the User Experience CommunityPlease join in the discussions, learn something new, and help us spread theword!Jessie’s UX Employee BlogUX CMM & the SDLC2 commentsA review of assessment methods12 commentsReview of the latest UX books0 commentsIdentify needfor user-centered designSystem satisfiesUserRequirementsSpecify context for useSpecify UserRequirementsCreate design solutionsEvaluateDesignsUser Experience TeamABC Co. IntranetTestimonials“The UX Research & Design team is aninvaluable partner in helping projectssucceed. We can now measure useradoption and satisfaction.”expand VUX Design Methods+ Research & Ideation- Interaction Design & InformationArchitecture+ Tools+ Templates+ Samples+ Usability Testing+ Visual DesignWikkiGlossary of Terms2012 Showcase ProjectGuidelines for UX AgileUX Discussion Boards
  31. 31. ABC Co. Intranet Menu 1 Menu 2 Our CompanyWork > Professional Practices > User Experience Community of Practice > UX TeamRetail User Experience TeamLorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmodtempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.• Ut enim ad minim veniam,• quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex eacommodo consequat• Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillumdolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur.Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officiadeserunt mollit anim id est laborum.Team RosterJessica Beecher, DirectorNinetta Cardarelli, Senior UX ConsultantEmily Axelrod, UX ConsultantPeter Barnes, Senior Usability AnalystMaddie Jones, Junior Analystexpand VUsability Lab CalendarNews from the Field<< < 2012 > >>Product Strategy DepartmentRequest Lab ServicesUXPA RSS FeedDrumroll, please… We’re really excited to begin sharing details about the firstof UXPA’s two 2013 conference events! Washington, DC will be the location forthe … expand VTeam Documents- Project Documents- ABC Redesign 2012 ProjectUsability FindingsPersonasScenariosStoryboardsWireframes+ Annual Benefits+ Sales Illustration+ Showcase Project- Operations+ Templates for Deliverables+ Groundwork Templates+ Incoming Project Requests+ Status ReportsWikkiGlossary of TermsGuidelines for UX Agile
  32. 32. future of enterprise User Experience?INNOVATIONinside-outculture changecollectiveintelligencecapabilitydesignpracticedesignuser-experienceresearchmarketresearchcollectiveintelligenceglobal forcesDESIGN THINKINGVALUE ECOSYSTEMorganizationusers/customersoutside-ininternal(organizational)external32
  33. 33. Ambidextrous organizationshave built-in capabilities forefficiency, consistency andreliability on the one hand,and experimentation,improvisation and luck on theother.Tushman, Michael L. & O`Reilly Charles A. 200433
  34. 34. design leadershipLing,, 2011Gladwell,, 200034
  35. 35. We will:• speak a common language• share a common view of what our work is and what it’s for• learn from each other• innovate based on multi-disciplinary collaboration• value diversity of thought as the most valued form of diversityA team of master practitioners, both in their ownpractices and in playing together!!Work willbe less aboutfitting with thelatest process;it will be more aboutcollectively solvingproblems.Sarah Bloomer & Jen Fabrizi Changing the UX Mindset 35high performing teams
  36. 36. WRAP UPMANY THANKS TO3RD STRING TRIOthank youAldo Fabrizi on mandolinsPeter Barnes on guitarsKaren Axelrod on accordionhttps://www.facebook.com/3rdStringTrio3rd String Trioold-world café music fromFrance, Italy, Spain, England,Scotland, Ireland, Germany,South America
  37. 37. References & ResourcesAbout CMM / CMMICMMI Institute, Carnegie Mellon | www.cmmiinstitue.comdownloadble resources including CMMI modelsSoftware Engineering Institute | Carnegie Mellonhttp://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/?location=secondary-nav&source=652373Background on the CMMhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capability_Maturity_ModelDymond, K. M. (1995). A Guide to the Cmm: Understanding the Capability Maturity Model for Software. Process Inc U.S.http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0964600803/ref=nosim/lindazaratesc-20/User Experience Capability Maturity Models (UX CMMs)Rich Buttiglieri’s presentation to UXPA Boston on UX Maturity Modelshttp://www.slideshare.net/UPABoston/ux-maturity-modelbuttiglieriRich references other exemplars of UXMMs.A nice example from Johnny Holland with 6 levels of maturity:http://johnnyholland.org/2010/04/planning-your-ux-strategyA cute version:http://www.tarrani.net/tzmodel/EvolutionOfProcessMaturity.jpgProcess Models for Agilehttp://www.agile-training-courses.com/scrum.htmlhttp://agileproductdesign.com/useful_papers/miller_customer_input_in_agile_projects.pdf37
  38. 38. References & Resources, continuedUX DISCIPLINESBlevis, E., & Stolterman, E. (2009). FEATURE: Transcending disciplinary boundaries in interaction design. interactions, 16(5), 48–51.doi:10.1145/1572626.1572636In their article the authors discuss the nature of multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and “transdisciplinary” work in the user experiencedomains. I have adapted and expanded their model to apply to a Capability Model framework. A framework should lead towardmultidisciplinary work but degrees of mastery in each capability need to be achieved first. Also, as a framework, the attributes are notto be considered absolute or definitive; put another way, there is considerable overlap (“transdisciplinary” thinking).Also read: http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2007/11/the-five-competencies-of-user-experience-design.phpLing, B. (n.d.). Design Management vs. Design Thinking. Design Sojourn. Retrieved May 26, 2013, fromhttp://www.designsojourn.com/design-management-vs-design-thinking/FROM KNOWLEDGE & CHANGE MANAGEMENTCraig, W., Fisher, M., Garcia-Miller, S., Kaylor, C., Porter, J., & Reed, L. (2009). Generalized Criteria and Evaluation Method for Center ofExcellence: A Preliminary Report. Software Engineering Institute. Retrieved from http://repository.cmu.edu/sei/278And read more about Communities of Practice:http://www.infed.org/biblio/communities_of_practice.htmIqbal, M. (n.d.). Customer Experience and Organisational Change: Reflections on the Limits and Folly of Outside-In. CUSTOMER +LEADERSHIP BLOG. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from http://thecustomerblog.co.uk/2013/04/16/customer-experience-and-organisational-change-reflections-on-the-limits-and-folly-of-outside-in/MODELING COMPLEX WORK RELATIONSHIPSMonk, A., & Howard, S. (1998). Methods &amp; tools: the rich picture: a tool for reasoning about work context. interactions, 5(2),21–30. doi:10.1145/274430.274434POWER OF NETWORKShttp://www.thersa.org/events/rsaanimate/animate/rsa-animate-the-power-of-networks38
  39. 39. for inspirationhttp://www.theworlds50best.com/demo-video-of-la-bullipedia-by-ferran-adria/12686/http://ecorner.stanford.edu/authorMaterialInfo.html?mid=242839