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The Enlightenment and the French Revolution


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The Enlightenment and the French Revolution

  1. 1. Enlightenment, France, and Freedom <ul><li>Absolutism vs. Enlightened Despot </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>France and the Fall of Absolutism </li></ul><ul><li>Reign of Terror </li></ul>
  2. 2. Enlightenment Spreads <ul><li>Exciting time to be alive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why now? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free time for the middle class and wealthy allows time to pursue thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printing press allows for the spread of ideas </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Thinkers Unite! <ul><li>Parisian Salons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings between the thinkers of the time to discuss the newest discoveries and ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages collaboration and openness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marie-Therese Geoffrin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self educated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important salon were the greatest thinkers of the time would meet to discuss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even a correspondent of Catherine the Great </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Diderot and the Encyclopedia <ul><li>Imagined a great volume of books that could be referenced on all subjects by scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Began to publish books with articles from philosophers on all subjects including science, government, art, and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Government and the Church saw as a threat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insighting revolt against royal authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ moral corruption” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eventually won the right to continue publishing </li></ul>
  5. 5. Baroque Art <ul><li>Baroque </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grand, ornate style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very over the top </li></ul></ul><ul><li>15 th and 16 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Rich color, detail, and imagery for paintings </li></ul>
  6. 6. Neoclassical <ul><li>Holla Back!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Throw back to the classics of ancient Greece and Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Order and Balance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arete- the pursuit of perfection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple and Elegant </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1700’s </li></ul>
  7. 7. Classical Music <ul><li>Haydn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sonata and Symphony </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mozart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Began composing at age 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kyrie </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beethoven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridged the gap between neoclassical and romantic period </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Activity <ul><li>Read pg 193 and draw a pyramid diagramming the old Regime </li></ul>Wealth Population
  9. 9. The French Revolution <ul><li>King Louis XVI lived well while the rest of the country starved </li></ul>
  10. 10. The French Revolution <ul><li>Nobles tax exempt </li></ul><ul><li>Used tax exemption to keep the nobles happy </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves the Middle Class to pick up the bill! </li></ul>
  11. 11. The French Revolution <ul><li>Other Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of enlightened ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food Scarcity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resentment of religious intolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resentment of royal absolutism </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Louis XVI <ul><li>Weak leader not concerned with what is going on in his country </li></ul><ul><li>Marie Antoinette </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hated for being Austrian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Madame Deficit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large debt leads to the need to call the Estates-General to raise funds </li></ul>
  13. 13. Three Forces of Change <ul><li>What are the three major forces or causes that lead to the French Revolution? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlightenment Ideals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Woes </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Estates-General <ul><li>Each Estate had one vote </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Church and Nobles usually outvoted the third estate even though they had less people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each estate meets separately and decides on its vote </li></ul>
  15. 15. Enlightenment Changes Minds <ul><li>Third Estate want all estates to meet together with each delegate voting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Third Estate would dominate based on population in this system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Louis sides with the Nobles and forces the Medieval rules to be followed </li></ul><ul><li>Abbe Sieyes champions the third estates cause encouraging the delegates to take action </li></ul>
  16. 16. National Assembly <ul><li>Sieyes idea for the Third Estate </li></ul><ul><li>June 17, 1789 The Third Estate votes to start the Naitonal Assembly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marks the end of Absolutism in France </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locked out of their meeting room in protest to their bold move </li></ul><ul><li>Break into a Tennis Court for a meeting place </li></ul>
  17. 17. Tennis Court Oath <ul><li>Delegates pledge to stay until they have drawn up a new constitution recognizing the rights of all citizens </li></ul>
  18. 18. Comparing Revolutions <ul><li>Take 1 minute and list terms, people, and ideas that led to the American Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Join with a partner and create a venn-diagram comparing and contrasting the causes of the French and American Revolution </li></ul>
  19. 19. Last Attempt to Maintain Power <ul><li>King Louis XVI tries to keep the peace by giving into the demands of the 3rd Estate and demanding that all three Estates meet together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not want the division in the country to increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scared that he can not trust the French Army so he moves his Swiss Guard into Paris causing a panic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parisians believe the foreign army is coming to massacre citizens </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. REVOLT I SAY! <ul><li>Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French Version of the Declaration of Independence </li></ul></ul></ul>Storming of the Bastille
  21. 21. Great Fear <ul><li>Peasants in the country side also concerned for their safety </li></ul><ul><li>Believe that the Nobles will hire people to destroy what little crops they have </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to ransack nobles’ homes and burn the documentation of their feudal obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Helped end the practice of Feudalism once and for all </li></ul>
  22. 22. Declaration of the Rights of Man <ul><li>As fear sweeps the country the National Assembly states its purpose </li></ul><ul><li>“ All men are born and remain free and equal in rights” </li></ul><ul><li>Ensured basic rights of citizens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Liberty, Equality, Fraturnity” </li></ul>
  23. 23. Revolution and the Church <ul><li>Church lands taken </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell the land to pay off debt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid taxing more heavily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Church officials and priest to be elected by property owners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid as state officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic church loses power and independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not popular with the Catholics of the County </li></ul><ul><li>Pits Peasants against the Bourgeoisie and the Revolution from this point onward </li></ul>
  24. 24. Louis the Lion Hearted??? <ul><li>Louis warned he and his family were in danger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters of the Monarch left France rather than stay to deal with the revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attempts to escape to Austria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognized near the border </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Returned to Paris under guard </li></ul><ul><li>Increased general paranoia and allowed radicals to take further control </li></ul>
  25. 25. Activity <ul><li>Who were the different people involved in the revolution? Read Conflicting Goals Cause Division on pg 198 and answer the following questions. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Questions (pg 198) <ul><li>What is a limited Monarchy? </li></ul><ul><li>Who were the radicals and what did they want for France? </li></ul><ul><li>Who were the Moderates and what did they want for France? </li></ul><ul><li>Who were the Conservatives and what did they want for France? </li></ul><ul><li>How is this similar to the English revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>How is this different from the English revolution? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Three Factions <ul><li>Radicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sat on the left </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted more change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No monarchy, establish a republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sans-Culottes extreme wing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wage earners and shop keepers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower food prices and an end to the shortage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No role in assembly but influential in other ways </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Three Factions <ul><li>Moderates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sat in the center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking for change but were not trying to reform the entire system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change within the structure of the current Monarchy system </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Three Factions <ul><li>Conservatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sat on Right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted limited Monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As few changes in government as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Émigrés </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nobles who fled France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looking to restore the Old Regime and the Monarch </li></ul></ul></ul>