Fascism, Nazism, And Instability Honors


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Fascism, Nazism, And Instability Honors

  1. 1. Fascism, Nazism, Militarism, and the March Towards War <ul><li>World positions </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression and Appeasement </li></ul>
  2. 2. WWI Results <ul><li>End of Absolutism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New governments begin to form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracies begin to form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many parties divide country </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalition governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No one could gain a majority in many countries leading to deadlock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary alliances between parties were necessary to form majorities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. WWI Results <ul><li>Changing governments cause instability in the countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People in these countries wanted a return to better times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willing to forfeit their right in hopes that a stronger leader would be able to solve the problems the coalition governments could not </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Weimar Republic <ul><li>Germany develops a democracy after the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack democratic tradition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous political parties decentralizes decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germans blamed the new government for the defeat and the conditions of Versailles because they were the ones who signed the official surrender and treaty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General unrest in population due to poor conditions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Weimar Republic <ul><li>Inflation-a persistent, substantial rise in the general level of prices related to an increase in the volume of money and resulting in the loss of value of currency </li></ul><ul><li>Germany had not raised taxes during the war and now faced significant war debt, rebuilding costs, and reparation payments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money becomes useless as new government attempts to pay off loans by printing more money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone on a fixed income saw their lives become worthless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bread cost billions of marks </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Dawes Plan <ul><li>International community realizes the German situation will lead to revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Reparation payments would begin at 1 billion marks for the first year and should rise over a period of four years to 2.5 billion marks per year. </li></ul><ul><li>The German Reichsbank would be reorganized under Allied supervision. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign loans (primarily from the United States) would be made available to Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>The sources for the reparation money should include transportation, excise, and custom taxes. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Europe Plays Nice.. For A While <ul><li>1925 leaders from Germany, France and other nations meet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign a treaty agreeing not to go to war with each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany agrees to respect the boundaries of France and Belgium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany admitted to the League of Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Spirit of Locarno” </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact <ul><li>US Secretary of State worked with France to come to an agreement to end all wars </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all countries in the world signed </li></ul><ul><li>No teeth in the treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you enforce this? Threaten a country with war? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The American Great Depression Scategories <ul><li>Take 5 minutes to brainstorm all of the important people, terms, and events of the American Great Depression and write them in list form on a piece of paper. While you watch the movie, circle each term you hear. The person with the most terms at the end of the movie circled will “win” the game </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ripple Effect <ul><li>Newtonian Physics: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction </li></ul><ul><li>The American economy was holding up the rest of the world through their booming manufacturing and foreign investing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall the foreign loans trying to cover domestic losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans consume less foreign goods </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Trade Wars <ul><li>Congress passes protective tariffs to try and revive the economy </li></ul><ul><li>World Trade drops off by 65% </li></ul>
  12. 12. Panic at the Disco… I mean Bank <ul><li>AH well imagine as walked threw the lines of a bank corridor and I can’t help but to hear no I can’t help but to hear an exchanging of words </li></ul><ul><li>JUST GIVE ME MY MONEY says the man in the suit to the banker (yea I know it doesn’t fit…_ </li></ul><ul><li>Think Mary Poppins at the bank with the children </li></ul>
  13. 13. Fascism <ul><li>Nationalistic, Authoritarian </li></ul><ul><li>Benito Mussolini started in Italy in 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Supremacy of nation and leader </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian rulers </li></ul><ul><li>No set ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Use of secret police to enforce their rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terror a major political tactic </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Economics Leads to Control <ul><li>In Italy, Germany, and Japan leaders use the great depression as a way to gain control LEGALLY! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans gave Hitler power to stand up to communists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King of Italy gave Mussolini power to try and appease the working class and maintain the monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese parliament severely limited with no civilian control of the military. Military uses Emperor to gain control </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Beginnings of Aggression <ul><li>Japan invades Manchuria </li></ul><ul><li>League of Nations too weak to impose any real threat </li></ul><ul><li>Japan leaves the League </li></ul>
  16. 16. Mussolini and Imperialism <ul><li>Invades Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to return to Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopian Emperor appeals to League of Nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condemn the attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British still allow supplies through the Suez </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe trying to avoid war at home </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Hitler <ul><li>Creates a larger army than that allowed by the Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>League mildly objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The posters in Germany that said “Today Germany! Tomorrow the World!” should have been a significant clue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe is war weary and trying to get through the depression and does not want to start another conflict </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Hitler on the March <ul><li>Germany marches into the Rhineland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer Zone between France and Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appeasement the talk of the day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not want another war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later Hitler admits he would have backed down had France and Britain challenged this move </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Axis Powers <ul><li>Mussolini sees the weakness of Europe and forms an alliance with Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>Japan allies itself with Germany one month later </li></ul>
  20. 20. Spanish Civil War <ul><li>Germany and Italy see this as an opportunity to spread Fascism </li></ul><ul><li>General Francisco Franco leads the Fascist revolt against the young republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler and Mussolini send troops and supplies to help the cause </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The rest of Europe stays out of the conflict and Franco wins the war </li></ul>
  21. 21. So where is everyone anyway? <ul><li>Why didn’t Europe catch the warning signs? Why didn’t the United States get involved? </li></ul><ul><li>US is stuck in a period of isolationism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not want to get involved in another costly European conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrality Acts ban loans and the sale of arms to any nation at war </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. And Europe? <ul><li>Too busy cleaning up the mess from WWI to truly pay close attention </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with their own internal problems from the Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Why start another war if Hitler just wants a little more room? </li></ul>