8. Napoleon Rise And Fall


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8. Napoleon Rise And Fall

  1. 1. Napoleon <ul><li>Terror Letter Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Fall from Power </li></ul><ul><li>Congress of Vienna </li></ul>
  2. 2. Post- Terror France <ul><li>Removal of price supports in place to protect workers </li></ul><ul><li>No toleration for violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorizes the use of force against protestors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Constitution with Directory protected property, reduced power of the masses, and established voting rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No voting for women though </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Post-Terror France <ul><li>Directory loses election and suspends results </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimacy based on power and not elections </li></ul><ul><li>What were the original goals of the revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the people really looking for? </li></ul><ul><li>Did they fail? If so, where did they go wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>How could they have changed the outcome of the revolution? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Napoleon’s Achievements <ul><li>Savior of the Revolution! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroys a Royalist attempt to take the National Convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed to lead the French army against the Austrian and Prussian assault by the Directory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coup d’Etat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1799 Directory has lost control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abbe Sieyes urges Napoleon to take control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the Military to chase out the Directory and the Legislature sets up a Triumvirate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon seizes all control from the others </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Napoleon’s Achievements <ul><li>Plebiscite- vote of the people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held to approve yet another new Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth in 8 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular Authoritarianism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Begins to stabilize the country </li></ul><ul><li>Economic changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient, equal taxation system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Bank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilized currency </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Napoleon’s Achievements <ul><li>Government Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Schools or Lycees to train government officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed to positions in government based on MERIT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fired corrupt officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created the Napoleonic Code of Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon thought this was his greatest accomplishment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited the liberties of each individual in favor of centralized authority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restored slavery in the colonies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protected property </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equality in law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women are denied political and economic rights </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Napoleon’s Achievements <ul><li>The Church and the State </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon crowns himself Emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What message does this send the Church? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concordat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement with Pope Pius VII </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government recognized the influence of the Church in France but rejected church control of national affairs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government would appoint Bishops but the Bishops would appoint the Priests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both remain on state payroll </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helped Napoleon gain the support of the French people </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Napoleon’s Empire <ul><li>Saint Domingue Revolt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves had rose up against the French during the revolution and took control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon decides he wants to regain control of the colony and sends troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves had the home field advantage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many French soldiers died of Yellow Fever </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Louisiana Purchase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Without the island Napoleon didn’t need Louisiana to produce food for the slaves and was willing to sell the territory to the US to finance his European Wars </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. European Conquests <ul><li>Napoleon annexes Austrian Netherlands and parts of Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Britain, Austria, and Sweden join the Third Coalition against France and Napoleon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon proclaims the greatness of his army and rides out to meet the challenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Trafalgar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only battle lost against the Coalition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naval defeat that destroyed the French fleet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No way to cross the English Channel to invade Britain without control of the Seas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Three Fatal Mistakes of Napoleon <ul><li>Continental System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blockade against trade between Great Britain and other European Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supposed to make Europe more self-sufficient and cripple the British Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smugglers snuck through the blockade on a regular basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain enacted a blockade in response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stronger navy to enforce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stopped neutral ships and forced them through a British port </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Started the War of 1812 with the Americans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Three Fatal Mistakes of Napoleon <ul><li>Peninsular War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declares war on Portugal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish towns protest the troop movements through Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deposed the Spanish King and put his brother Joseph on the throne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Angered loyal citizens to the King </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Angered the large Catholic base in Spanish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guerrillas begin attacking Napoleon’s troops in resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish peasants who ambushed the French and then ran away </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Three Fatal Mistakes of Napoleon <ul><li>Invasion of Russia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scorched- Earth Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retreating towards Moscow and burning everything in their path </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not allow Napoleon to use any Russia supplies to feed army </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated the Russians at Moscow only to be defeated by the winter </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Official Abdication <ul><li>Napoleon continued to fight on after Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Coalition forces eventually march on Paris </li></ul><ul><li>April 1814 the Emperor officially gave up his throne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given a small pension and exiled to Elba </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Hundred Days <ul><li>Napoleon Escapes and returns for a brief time promising a return to Revolutionary ideals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Louis XVIII placed on the throne and tries to restore absolute rule in the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants and army openly welcome the return of Napoleon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coalition once again rises up to defeat the threat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Waterloo is the deciding battle where Napoleon is once again defeated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exiled to St. Helen thousands of miles away to prevent another return </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Congress of Vienna <ul><li>Create a concept web including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Countries involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals of the Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metternich </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political changes </li></ul></ul>