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  1. 1. French Revolution and the Reign of Terror <ul><li>Reign of Terror </li></ul>
  2. 2. War with Austria <ul><li>European Monarchs and Nobles fear the revolution might spread </li></ul><ul><li>Austria asks that Louis XVI be put back on the throne </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative assembly declares war </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Help restore Louis to the throne </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent the spread of revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Show the peasants who is boss </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Spread enlightenment ideals and revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Beat another monarch into submission to free others </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain their newly found freedoms and choices </li></ul>
  4. 4. France Struggles <ul><li>Poorly equipped and trained </li></ul><ul><li>Austrian and Prussian Armies disciplined and ready </li></ul><ul><li>Paris is threatened with invasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prussian commander threatens to destroy Paris if the Monarch or his family are harmed </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Mob Violence <ul><li>20,000 citizens angered by the statement take to the streets and invade the Tuileries </li></ul><ul><li>Kill the 900 Swiss </li></ul><ul><li>Take Louis, Marie, and children prisoner in a stone tower </li></ul>
  6. 6. Paris in Turmoil <ul><li>French army failing against the Prussians </li></ul><ul><li>Parisian volunteers ready to leave to help </li></ul><ul><li>Rumor spreads that royalists are planning to take over the city once they leave </li></ul><ul><li>Take the law into their own hands with the September Massacre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 1,000 prisoners killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobles, clergy, royalists </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The National Convention <ul><li>The National Assembly recognizes the feeble attempts at limited monarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formally depose the king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set aside the Constitution of 1791 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call for new elections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The National Convention is born </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mob Rule Instead of Majority <ul><li>Mob leaders have more power than government </li></ul><ul><li>Bourgeoisie leading the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Political Clubs formed and joined by many middle class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radicalism the flavor of the day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jacobins- most radical group of the revolution </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Louis XVI Meets his End <ul><li>National Convention declares France a Republic </li></ul><ul><li>King Louis is just another citizen </li></ul><ul><li>All men given the right to vote and hold office </li></ul><ul><li>King Louis XVI tried for treason and found guilty under the leadership of the Jacobins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentenced to death by a close vote </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jan 21, 1793 the ex-king went to the Guillotine </li></ul>
  10. 10. War with Austria Spreads <ul><li>England, Holland, and Spain join against the French </li></ul><ul><li>Require a draft of 300,000 French to try and beat the many enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Army grows to 800,000 and included women </li></ul>
  11. 11. Internal Enemies <ul><li>While fighting the war against the foreign countries the internal war was just as troublesome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jacobins have many enemies including </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Priests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants horrified at the execution of the king </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other leaders looking for power </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Jacobins- Two Factions <ul><li>The Mountain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sat high in the assembly hall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Maximilien Robespierre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic to the plight of the Parisian working class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impatient with parliament process and constitutional constraints on government action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Girondists </li></ul><ul><li>Named after region in South France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate Jacobins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why would the Mountain be impatient? Why could this impatient be a dangerous trait? Why is this somewhat ironic? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Maximilien Robespierre and Power <ul><li>France still in serious economic trouble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses popular press and political clubs to solidify position with the Parisian working class </li></ul><ul><li>Uses influence with the people to execute his rivals in the National Convention and restructure the government </li></ul>
  14. 14. Robespierre and the Reign of Terror <ul><li>Maximilien Robespierre emerges from the pack as the leader of the revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to promote a “Republic of Virtue” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wipe out all traces of the French Monarchy and Nobility by killing the people and removing all references (even from playing cards) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Reason and the Revolution <ul><li>Changes calendar to 12 months of 30 days </li></ul><ul><li>No Sundays in new calendar because religion was “old fashioned” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed the churches of Paris </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Committee of Public Safety <ul><li>Robespierre decides who is an enemy of the state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try and execute people in the same day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasoned that Terror was a tool of virtue in times of revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just bringing the people to swift justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping the revolutionary ideals alive and well by executing all those who oppose </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Executions <ul><li>Robespierre executed many fellow revolutionaries who challenged his power </li></ul><ul><li>Marie-Antoinette the most famous execution </li></ul><ul><li>Approximate 3,000 executed in Paris alone </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated 40,000 killed overall </li></ul><ul><li>300,000 imprisoned </li></ul>
  18. 18. End of the Terror <ul><li>None of the National Committee was safe </li></ul><ul><li>Turn on Robespierre to save themselves from Madame Guillotine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrested and killed the next day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Last powerful leader of the Revolution killed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public opinion shifts to the right and changes follow </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. If at first you don’t succeed… <ul><li>Government Change #3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Convention drafts a new constitution that favors the middle class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive of five men called the Directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corrupted but able to keep order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate leaders </li></ul></ul></ul>