6. China And The West


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6. China And The West

  1. 1. China and the West
  2. 2. Ming Dynasty Recap
  3. 3. Portuguese and Trade in China <ul><li>Portuguese reach China in 1513 but do not receive the right to trade until 1557 from Macao </li></ul>
  4. 5. Portuguese and Trade in China <ul><li>Portuguese reach China in 1513 but do not receive the right to trade until 1557 from Macao </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans that do trade with China do so with bases on nearby islands including for a brief time Taiwan </li></ul>
  5. 6. Dutch Supremacy <ul><li>Leading trader in East Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Gain entry in the Chinese markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed Kowtow </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Catholicism in China <ul><li>Missionaries enter area along with traders </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for conversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Franciscans and Dominicans try bottom up strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesuits try top down strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Matteo Ricci (1552-1610) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastered Chinese Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared western science with the Chinese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invited to live in Beijing on a stipend as a western scholar </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Early Qing <ul><li>Focus on economic recovery and cultural achievements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better roads and public works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower taxes and set rents and interest rates low to foster economic growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebuild areas devastated by the rebellions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conquer new territory and expand empire </li></ul><ul><li>Collect tribute from smaller empires in region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam, Burma, Nepal </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Emperor Kangxi <ul><li>Nobility control the early emperors </li></ul><ul><li>Kangxi a small boy when he became emperor so nobility rule as regent </li></ul><ul><li>Executes his chief regent at age 16 to take complete control </li></ul><ul><li>Ushers in a reign of prosperity and stability as a strong, intelligent ruler </li></ul>
  9. 10. Emperor Kangxi <ul><li>Northern Territory always a worry for Chinese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge border with little or no protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amur River region borders with Russian Empire and Mongol states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feared a potential alliance between their enemies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send small attack forces to harass the Russian outposts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting for the allegiance of the local peoples which would hopefully help secure their boarders </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Rivalry with the Russians <ul><li>Russians need this area for its access to goods such as firs, metals, and timber </li></ul><ul><li>Control of Northern Pacific a point of contention for both sides </li></ul><ul><li>Continued conflict bad for both sides </li></ul>
  11. 12. Treaty of Nerchinsk <ul><li>1668 Russians and Chinese attempt to end their conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Defined the boarder of the Empires as the Amur River and regulated trade between the two Empires </li></ul>
  12. 13. Religious Troubles at Home <ul><li>Jesuits valued by Kangxi for their scientific knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits accept the practice of ancestor worship as part of their adjustments to spread the faith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pope disagrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kangxi expels any Jesuit that refuses to accept his position </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Kangxi
  14. 15. Tea and Trade <ul><li>Trade controlled in China by only permitting one access point for Europeans- Canton </li></ul><ul><li>England worried about the trade deficit that existed with the Chinese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver pouring into China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tea major export </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No major imports for China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East India Company mismanaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blamed the Canton System for their woes </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Macartney Mission <ul><li>Sent to China from Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China did not understand the Ambassador system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refused to do the Kowtow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>China refused to renegotiate the trade system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No new ports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other foreign countries attempt the same thing and all fail </li></ul>