5. Islam

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  • Lesson Plans: Review Questions of other religions: 15 min Islam Video: 40 min Islam discussion: 20 min Confucianism: 10 min Closure: What is the greatest similarity between religions? What is the greatest difference between religions?
  • 5. Islam

    1. 1. Islam “No part of the world is more hopelessly and systematically and stubbornly misunderstood by us than that complex of religion, culture and geography known as Islam.”- Meg Greenfield, Newsweek
    2. 2. Legacy of Misunderstanding <ul><li>Border Disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Name of religion even incorrect and offensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mohammedanism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam is correct and means “Peace and Surrender” </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Islam’s History <ul><li>Descendants of Noah’s son, Shem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider themselves to be Semitic people just like Judaism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Follow the Jewish tradition through the story of Abraham to the banishing of Hagar and Ishmael </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descendants of Ishmael give rise to Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great Conquerors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empire greater than even the Romans </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Mohammad <ul><li>“The Seal of the Prophets” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentic prophets before him but he is the last </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Born into the leading tribe of Mecca approximately A.D. 570 </li></ul><ul><li>Life in the desert region difficult even in the best of times </li></ul><ul><li>Orphaned at an early age </li></ul>
    5. 5. Mohammad <ul><li>Married a wealthy widow 15 years his senior who was a comfort to him throughout his life </li></ul><ul><li>Continued to seek solitude from the ugliness that surrounded him in a cave near Mecca known as Mount Hira </li></ul><ul><li>Ignores the dessert Jihn of the regional religion and focuses on one of the many gods called Allah </li></ul>
    6. 6. Mohammad Receives his Commission <ul><li>An Angel in the form of a man visits Mohammad in his cave and orders him to proclaim </li></ul><ul><li>Wife becomes his first convert </li></ul>
    7. 7. Reaction to Mohammad’s Message <ul><li>Violent and Hostile </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheism threatened money coming in from polytheistic pilgrimages </li></ul><ul><li>Moral teachings demanded end to debauchery </li></ul><ul><li>Challenged an unjust social order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the sight of the Lord, all people are equal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very Democratic message for the time </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Hijra-Mohammad Moves to Yathrib <ul><li>Spiritual leaders and nobility of Mecca worried about his growing numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Yathrib in need of a strong leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promises to follow the precepts of Islam and obey the prophet in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>622 AD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the year the Muslims use to start their calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yathrib becomes Medina al-Nabi and eventually shortened to Medina </li></ul>
    9. 9. Mohammad’s New Role in Medina <ul><li>Must become an administrator and statesmen to lead the people </li></ul><ul><li>Manages to bring order to a city composed of five competing tribes (three of which were Jewish) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Battling with Mecca <ul><li>Mecca attempts to force Medina into submission and to capture Mohammad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First attempt thwarted by the Medinese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second attempt Mohammad wounded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third attempt laid siege to the city and lost permanently swinging the balance in Mohammad’s favor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Returns to Mecca a conqueror and forgives the city </li></ul><ul><li>Rededicates the Ka’ba to Allah and returns to Medina </li></ul>
    11. 11. The Koran <ul><li>Recitation </li></ul><ul><li>Most read and possibly most influential </li></ul><ul><li>Mohammad considered this God’s “standing miracle” </li></ul><ul><li>114 chapters and 4/5ths the length of the New Testament </li></ul><ul><li>Considered a consideration of the Old and New testament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews and Christians are also people of “the book” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purest scripture because it is free from inaccuracies caused by mistranslation and missing parts of the truth </li></ul>
    12. 12. Beliefs of Islam <ul><li>Many similarities in beliefs and traditions with both Christians and Jews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not believe in the divinity of Christ or the Incarnation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shares the belief that God created the world and that it is good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to the development of science in Muslim world while the west suffered through the dark ages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abraham the most important figure of the Koran </li></ul>
    13. 13. Beliefs of Islam <ul><li>Monothesism revealed through Abraham </li></ul><ul><li>Then Commandments through Moses </li></ul><ul><li>Golden Rule through Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>Koran answers HOW to love your neighbor </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Five Pillars <ul><li>“There is no god but God, and Muhammad is His Prophet “ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings peace to Muslims on a daily basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often uttered in times of distress to remind Muslims and place perspective on the crisis </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. The Five Pillars <ul><li>Daily prayer facing Mecca </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five times a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explained during Mohammad’s ascent to Heaven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Originally God ordered 50 times a day but Moses encouraged Mohammad to renegotiate a number that would work for the people </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. The Five Pillars <ul><li>Alms and charity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who have should help those who have not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both income and possessions </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Five Pillars of Islam <ul><li>Ramadan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Month in the Islamic calendar in which Mohammad: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Received his initial revelation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made the Hijrah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast from sun up to sun down </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Five Pillars of Islam <ul><li>Haja </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage to Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walk seven times around the ka’ba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only Muslims may enter the inner city </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Status of Women <ul><li>Pre-Islamic status was TERRIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctification of Marriage did more to raise women's status than anything else </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Koran states a woman must give her free consent before being wed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divorce a last resort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men required to pay alimony </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polygyny is no longer common </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Status of Women <ul><li>“ Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks closely round them (when the go abroad). That will be better, so that they may be recognised and not annoyed.” </li></ul>
    21. 21. Religious Themes <ul><li>Now that we have completed our study of the great world religions, contemplate their similarities and differences in a broader perspective and return to the definition of religion. How does each of these religions meet the definition of religion? </li></ul>
    22. 22. Religion <ul><li>A set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, esp. when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Confucianism <ul><ul><li>Not a religion in the normal sense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy that governs the way of life of Chinese and other peoples around the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founder: Confucius 551-479 b.c. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and civic responsibility with a code to follow </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Confucianism <ul><ul><li>5 basic relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ruler and subjects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Father and sun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Husband and wife </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Older brother and younger brother </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friend and friend </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code of proper conduct was developed for all these relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not very woman friendly </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Confucianism <ul><ul><li>Celebration: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confucius’ birthday celebrated on Sept 28th around the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers also celebrated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education an important part of a fulfilled life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authority just below that of father </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritual: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Honoring ancestors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shrines in homes to honor the dead </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prays and food offered </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continued cooperation and aid for worshiping </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Confucianism <ul><ul><li>Worship: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confucius now seen as a god or spiritual leader with temples dedicated to him in many Chinese cities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Icon: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yin-Yang </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacred Texts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Analectic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recorded by his students </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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