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3. The Enlightenment And Governments


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3. The Enlightenment And Governments

  1. 1. The Enlightenment and Governments
  2. 2. Council of Trent <ul><li>The council’s declarations on justification affirm the importance of God’s freely given grace as the beginning of the process of salvation. What else is required of the believer to gain salvation? How do such views differ from those of Luther? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Council of Trent <ul><li>2. What do the rules concerning prohibited books reveal about the Church’s attitudes toward the printed book? </li></ul><ul><li>3. How openly do the council’s statements admit that abuses existed among the clergy? What steps are proposed to deal with such abuses? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Council of Trent <ul><li>If Luther or one of his followers had been given the opportunity to comment on the decisions of the Council of Trent represented in this assignment, what might they have said about the following issues: individual salvation; the Bible; the nature of the priesthood; saints; indulgences? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Review Questions <ul><li>What is humanism? Why is this such an important part of the Reformation? </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the major problems Martin Luther sites with the Catholic Church? </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the causes of the Reformation? </li></ul><ul><li>What effects do you think the Reformation had on society? Consider political, social, and economic changes. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Skepticism and Science <ul><li>How does the beginning of skepticism lead to scientific discovery? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Question the accepted wisdom of the time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Except we can never really know anything so what is the point </li></ul>
  7. 7. Medieval View of the World <ul><li>Geocentric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the Middle Ages the scholars of the day were sure the Earth was unmoving at the center of the Universe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Music of the Spheres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfect crystal spheres surround the Earth </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Changing Ways of Thought <ul><li>Challenging the wisdom of the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Heliocentric World View </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicolas Copernicus claims the sun is the center of the universe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bases on 25 years of observation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could not completely explain planetary movement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Changing Ways of Thought <ul><li>Johannes Kepler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finishes the work of his boss Tycho Brahe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devises equations to explain planetary motion and their orbits by assuming elliptical orbits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Galileo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persecuted by the church and required to recant his findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1992 Catholic Church officially retracted its condemnation of Galileo </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Spreading the Word <ul><li>Printing press allows for work to spread more effectively than in any previous time in history </li></ul><ul><li>Salons in Paris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings to discuss the latest and greatest in science and philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientific Organizations grow in popularity in England </li></ul>
  11. 11. Enlightenment <ul><li>REASON could lead to an understanding of social behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to other cultures leads to questioning of “Western” values </li></ul><ul><li>Believed with time all human institutions could be improved </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Enlightenment and Government <ul><li>Read the sections on each of the following philosophers in the packet taking notes on their theories in the box marked Beliefs/writing/contributions. Identify the main point that this philosopher is responsible in the main point box. Then, in groups, examine the US constitution and establish where their theories were used sighting specific articles, amendments, or the preamble. Your answers should be recorded in the constitutional reference section of the handout. </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbes </li></ul><ul><li>Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Voltaire </li></ul><ul><li>Montesquieu </li></ul><ul><li>Rousseau </li></ul><ul><li>Beccaria </li></ul>
  13. 13. Enlightenment <ul><li>In your opinion, what was the most important aspect of the enlightenment? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors coalesced to allow for this “awakening” of society? </li></ul><ul><li>Would this have happened had people not become dissatisfied with the Catholic Church? Why or why not? </li></ul>