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2. Ottoman Changes


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2. Ottoman Changes

  1. 1. Ottoman Changes
  2. 2. Military Might or Menace? <ul><li>How did the sultan pay all of his cavalrymen? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think these cavalrymen are the best use of the empires resources? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Technology (cannons and firearms) leads to a growing Janissary corp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To pay for new troops, reduce the salary and land-grants to the cavalrymen </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Economic Woes Plague Empire <ul><li>Inflation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What was the main cause of inflation in this time period in Europe (especially Spain)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New World silver to blame! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can’t afford to show up for service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lands reclaimed by the Sultan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roving bands of deposed troopers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stipends or madrasas from the government not adjusted for the inflation either </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers and students </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Military Crunch <ul><li>Islamic law sets the taxes for the Sultan and can not be altered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute a surtax </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Still need more money to pay the ever growing Janissaries and hire MORE partially trained soldiers for new campaigns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Europe how did the military drain the countries economics at this time period? How is this similar? How is it different? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Lets see… High Taxes+ large # of population unemployed + inflation=???? <ul><li>REVOLT 1590-1610 </li></ul><ul><li>Angry Calvary and jobless soldiers for hire </li></ul><ul><li>Overtaxes peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Underpaid scholars and students </li></ul><ul><li>Anatolia experiences the worst effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emigration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost agricultural production </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Janissaries Cash In on Chaos <ul><li>Very influential position </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of things do you think they try to negotiate for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to marry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to participate in commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State saves money because they can abolish the devshirme and pay less </li></ul><ul><li>Training and readiness decreases </li></ul>
  7. 7. Growing Weaknesses <ul><li>Loss of talented leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less able men take the Sultanship after Suleiman </li></ul></ul><ul><li>End to fratricide in favor of confinement </li></ul><ul><li>Lose touch with the outside world within the palace </li></ul><ul><li>Average reign only 13 years compared to reigns of as long as 50 years for previous sultans </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption of the system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bribery and nepotism </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Changes in Tax System <ul><li>Tax Farming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Has nothing to do with agriculture!!!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay taxes ahead of time to gain the right to collect that tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example- pay custom duties for a city for a year and then collect that tax to make a profit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Without the land-grant system what is missing in the equation for rural governance? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chaos because new system lacks leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually wealthy buy rights to continual tax farming and begin to act like private landowners </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Tired Empire <ul><li>Military skill and might decline </li></ul><ul><li>Change in farming from subsistence to cash crop requires reliance on European trading </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of wealth prohibits empire from keeping up with the innovation of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Capitulations- trade agreements lead to European dominance of Ottoman trade </li></ul>
  10. 10. Patrona Halil Rebellion <ul><li>Western influences adopted and even admired in Istanbul </li></ul><ul><li>Former seaman and conservative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forces the abdication of Ahmed III </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only lasted a few months before he was captured and executed </li></ul><ul><li>Signaled serious trouble for the Empire to surrounding countries and to the rural governors </li></ul>
  11. 11. Comparing Ottomans and Europeans Mistakes Religious Influence Military Social Structure Tax Structure Political Power and Structure Ottomans Europeans