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The Great Paleozoic Extinction   <ul><li>The formation of Pangea resulted in a much dryer climate.  </li></ul><ul><li>By t...
What Dies out and Why? <ul><li>_________   great extinctions </li></ul><ul><li>440 m.y.a.~ only a few species survived </l...
Causes Extinction <ul><li>*****  _________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_____...
<ul><li>Each of the five extinctions wiped out large masses of families and species and in each case the survivors having ...
Mesozoic Era: Age of Reptiles <ul><li>This era is divided into three periods: </li></ul><ul><li>Cretaceous </li></ul><ul><...
Mesozoic History   <ul><li>Much of North America is above sea level. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the Jurassic period s...
<ul><li>Pangea begins to break up.  </li></ul><ul><li>The eastern part of the United States splits from Africa giving birt...
Mesozoic Life <ul><li>On land life adapted to a dryer climate flourished.  </li></ul><ul><li>_________  or seed bearing pl...
<ul><li>Gymnosperms include : </li></ul><ul><li>_________  – resemble a large pineapple plant  </li></ul><ul><li>_________...
The Shelled Egg vs The Egg Without A Shell <ul><li>Amphibian Eggs : </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>________...
Reptile Eggs <ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul>
Reptiles Dominate   <ul><li>Lets take a look at the land the dinosaurs lived on and then take a good look at the evolution...
Oldest ( reptiles ) <ul><li>Are  _________  million years old </li></ul><ul><li>Many were small and squatty looking </li><...
What was it for? Some early dinosaurs had a  fin on their back. <ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul>
Why did the dinosaurs become so large? <ul><li>When the climate becomes  _________ , reptiles will become larger and domin...
Would there have been……. <ul><li>more herbivores or more carnivores? </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul>
Sauropods <ul><li>Apatosaurus  (Brontosaurus) </li></ul><ul><li>Brachiosaurus </li></ul><ul><li>Superiosarus </li></ul><ul...
Cretaceous <ul><li>No grasses yet, but we already have flowering plants </li></ul><ul><li>_________  – herbivores that cou...
Flying reptiles not dinosaurs: They were  pterosaurs  – flying reptiles
Jurassic <ul><li>Dinosaurs split in to two groups: </li></ul><ul><li>_________   </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul>
What do we know about T. Rex adults? <ul><li>Most likely a  _________  because? </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul>...
How did carnivores get their food? <ul><li>_________ . </li></ul><ul><li>_________ . </li></ul><ul><li>_________ . </li></ul>
Reptiles at the poles, how is this possible? <ul><li>_________ . </li></ul><ul><li>_________ . </li></ul>
Is it possible that….. <ul><li>Some of the smaller dinosaurs were warm blooded. </li></ul><ul><li>If that is true, then is...
Original birds <ul><li>has feathers, some could fly, had teeth </li></ul><ul><li>EX:  _________  - could fly </li></ul><ul...
Dinosaur Extinction
What was the over all reason for dinosaur extinction ? <ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>This was caused by : </li></ul>...
This directly affect the dinosaurs by? <ul><li>1.  _________ </li></ul><ul><li>2.  _________ </li></ul><ul><li>3.  _______...
Cenozoic Era <ul><li>Age of  _________  - 65 m.y.a. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cenozoic is divided into two periods : </li></ul...
Cenozoic Life   <ul><li>Mammals become the dominant form of life.  </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperms – flowering plants with c...
<ul><li>_________  develop by the Tertiary period making them one of the newest plants.  </li></ul><ul><li>This fostered t...
Warmblooded means: <ul><li>1- a constant  _________ </li></ul><ul><li>2- a need to  _________ </li></ul><ul><li>3- more  _...
<ul><li>Mammal diversification adaptations include : </li></ul><ul><li>1- increase in  _________ </li></ul><ul><li>2- incr...
Original Mammals <ul><li>1.  _________  : </li></ul><ul><li>ex:  _________   </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul>
Original Mammals <ul><li>2.  _________  : </li></ul><ul><li>pouched mammals </li></ul><ul><li>EX:  _________ </li></ul><ul...
Original Mammals <ul><li>3.  _________  : </li></ul><ul><li>ex: all modern mammals </li></ul>
Large Mammals and Extinction   <ul><li>Many large mammals existed until 11,000 years ago.  </li></ul><ul><li>This list inc...
Human’s Affect Other Species <ul><li>Humans may have played a part in the extinction of the animals, but there must be a m...
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Chapter 13outlinept3

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Chapter 13outlinept3

  1. 1. The Great Paleozoic Extinction <ul><li>The formation of Pangea resulted in a much dryer climate. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end Permian 57% of the amphibian families declined and plants decreased in number and variety. </li></ul><ul><li>Many marine organisms did not adapt or survive. </li></ul><ul><li>The estimate is that 80-95% of all marine organisms became extinct because they could not adapt. </li></ul>
  2. 2. What Dies out and Why? <ul><li>_________ great extinctions </li></ul><ul><li>440 m.y.a.~ only a few species survived </li></ul><ul><li>370 m.y.a. ~70% of marine invertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>225 m.y.a. ~ 80-96% of marine species </li></ul><ul><li>200 m.y.a. ~ many sea and land species </li></ul><ul><li>65 m.y.a . ~ 33% of all species. All marine reptiles, dinosaurs, etc. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Causes Extinction <ul><li>***** _________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>Extinctions are _________ causing evolutionary changes. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Each of the five extinctions wiped out large masses of families and species and in each case the survivors having little or no competition diversified to fill the vacated niches. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mesozoic Era: Age of Reptiles <ul><li>This era is divided into three periods: </li></ul><ul><li>Cretaceous </li></ul><ul><li>Jurassic </li></ul><ul><li>Triassic </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mesozoic History <ul><li>Much of North America is above sea level. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the Jurassic period shallow seas ( epicontinental seas ) invaded western North America, the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. </li></ul><ul><li>These shallow seas eventually formed gigantic swamps and later developed into coal deposits. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Pangea begins to break up. </li></ul><ul><li>The eastern part of the United States splits from Africa giving birth to the Atlantic Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>The western part of North America pushes westward over riding the Pacific plate causing tectonic activity to increase resulting in the formation of the Rocky Mountains. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mesozoic Life <ul><li>On land life adapted to a dryer climate flourished. </li></ul><ul><li>_________ or seed bearing plants develop taking advantage of nutrient rich soils. </li></ul><ul><li>They became the dominant plant of the Mesozoic. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Gymnosperms include : </li></ul><ul><li>_________ – resemble a large pineapple plant </li></ul><ul><li>_________ – cone bearing – includes pine, firs, and junipers </li></ul><ul><li>_________ – fan-like leaves </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Shelled Egg vs The Egg Without A Shell <ul><li>Amphibian Eggs : </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul>
  11. 11. Reptile Eggs <ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul>
  12. 12. Reptiles Dominate <ul><li>Lets take a look at the land the dinosaurs lived on and then take a good look at the evolution of reptiles……… </li></ul>
  13. 13. Oldest ( reptiles ) <ul><li>Are _________ million years old </li></ul><ul><li>Many were small and squatty looking </li></ul><ul><li>A few actually walked upright </li></ul><ul><li>At first they were not huge like they became later. </li></ul>
  14. 14. What was it for? Some early dinosaurs had a fin on their back. <ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why did the dinosaurs become so large? <ul><li>When the climate becomes _________ , reptiles will become larger and dominate. </li></ul><ul><li>As the climate _________ , mammals will become large and dominate </li></ul>
  16. 16. Would there have been……. <ul><li>more herbivores or more carnivores? </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sauropods <ul><li>Apatosaurus (Brontosaurus) </li></ul><ul><li>Brachiosaurus </li></ul><ul><li>Superiosarus </li></ul><ul><li>All had long necks, large bodies and were herbivores </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cretaceous <ul><li>No grasses yet, but we already have flowering plants </li></ul><ul><li>_________ – herbivores that could chew their food. </li></ul><ul><li>_________ – could not chew their food (gizzard). </li></ul><ul><li>_________ – bird like dinosaurs including veloceraptor. </li></ul><ul><li>Reptiles radiate until they even occupy the poles. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Flying reptiles not dinosaurs: They were pterosaurs – flying reptiles
  20. 20. Jurassic <ul><li>Dinosaurs split in to two groups: </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul>
  21. 21. What do we know about T. Rex adults? <ul><li>Most likely a _________ because? </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ . </li></ul><ul><li>Thigh bone to long to be able to run fast. Compare to birds who are fast. T. Rex was a better _________ . </li></ul><ul><li>Great sense of _________ l. </li></ul><ul><li>_________ – optic nerve very small. </li></ul>
  22. 22. How did carnivores get their food? <ul><li>_________ . </li></ul><ul><li>_________ . </li></ul><ul><li>_________ . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Reptiles at the poles, how is this possible? <ul><li>_________ . </li></ul><ul><li>_________ . </li></ul>
  24. 24. Is it possible that….. <ul><li>Some of the smaller dinosaurs were warm blooded. </li></ul><ul><li>If that is true, then is it possible that some of them could have evolved into : </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul>
  25. 25. Original birds <ul><li>has feathers, some could fly, had teeth </li></ul><ul><li>EX: _________ - could fly </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul>
  26. 26. Dinosaur Extinction
  27. 27. What was the over all reason for dinosaur extinction ? <ul><li>_________ </li></ul><ul><li>This was caused by : </li></ul><ul><li>1. _________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. _________ </li></ul><ul><li>3. _________ </li></ul>
  28. 28. This directly affect the dinosaurs by? <ul><li>1. _________ </li></ul><ul><li>2. _________ </li></ul><ul><li>3. _________ </li></ul><ul><li>4. _________ </li></ul>
  29. 29. Cenozoic Era <ul><li>Age of _________ - 65 m.y.a. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cenozoic is divided into two periods : </li></ul><ul><li>Quaternary – the last 2 million years </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary </li></ul>
  30. 30. Cenozoic Life <ul><li>Mammals become the dominant form of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperms – flowering plants with covered seeds replace gymnosperms as the dominant land plant. </li></ul><ul><li>_________ influence the development of both birds and mammals. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>_________ develop by the Tertiary period making them one of the newest plants. </li></ul><ul><li>This fostered the emergence of herbivorous mammals that later established conditions for carnivore evolution. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Warmblooded means: <ul><li>1- a constant _________ </li></ul><ul><li>2- a need to _________ </li></ul><ul><li>3- more _________ organisms </li></ul><ul><li>4- development of _________ , more efficient _________ and lungs, _________ to nourish young </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Mammal diversification adaptations include : </li></ul><ul><li>1- increase in _________ </li></ul><ul><li>2- increase in _________ </li></ul><ul><li>3- specialization of _________ to better accommodate a particular diet </li></ul><ul><li>4- specialization of _________ to better equip the animal for life in a particular environment </li></ul>
  34. 34. Original Mammals <ul><li>1. _________ : </li></ul><ul><li>ex: _________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ </li></ul>
  35. 35. Original Mammals <ul><li>2. _________ : </li></ul><ul><li>pouched mammals </li></ul><ul><li>EX: _________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ _________ _________ </li></ul><ul><li>_________ _________ _________ </li></ul>
  36. 36. Original Mammals <ul><li>3. _________ : </li></ul><ul><li>ex: all modern mammals </li></ul>
  37. 37. Large Mammals and Extinction <ul><li>Many large mammals existed until 11,000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>This list includes : </li></ul><ul><li>Mammoth </li></ul><ul><li>Saber-toothed cats </li></ul><ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><li>Giant ground sloths </li></ul><ul><li>Large beaver </li></ul><ul><li>Giant bison </li></ul><ul><li>Camels </li></ul>
  38. 38. Human’s Affect Other Species <ul><li>Humans may have played a part in the extinction of the animals, but there must be a much better reason. What could it be? </li></ul><ul><li>If an animal can reproduce at a rate that is ____% higher than a competing organism, the animal with the higher birth rate will win out and survive while its competitor will become extinct. </li></ul>

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