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Sumer ppt2


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Sumer ppt2

  1. 1. Sumer- Ancient Civilization A part of the Mesopotamia regionThursday, October 11, 2012
  2. 2. Mesopatamia Mesopotamia is part of a larger area of rich farmland called the Fertile Crescent. Mesopotamia means “between the rivers” in Greek.Thursday, October 11, 2012
  3. 3. What? The first civilization (defined by sheer size and population density, sedentary life-style) See archeologist’s Gordon Childe’s list of ancient civilizations’ featuresThursday, October 11, 2012
  4. 4. Prior to the Agricultural How did people survive? Where did their food come from?Thursday, October 11, 2012
  5. 5. Where? Between these two rivers: In modern day:Thursday, October 11, 2012
  6. 6. •Why here? (Geography/Politics= Geo-politics) Annual floods on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers brought silt that made the land ideal for farming.(Silt is a mixture of rich soil and tiny rocks.) Plentiful food led to population growth and the formation of villages. Villages later developed into the world’s first civilizations.Thursday, October 11, 2012
  7. 7. Cause and effect Farmers used irrigation and canals as a way to control river flow. >>>Increased amounts of food led to surpluses, which meant that fewer people needed to farm. >>>As a result, new occupations developed (later slide).Thursday, October 11, 2012
  8. 8. Agriculture in Sumer The water levels of the Tigris and Euphrates would rise or fall, depending on the amount of rainfall. Irrigation and canals helped solve flooding and drought problems. Irrigation= A way of supplying water to an area of land Canals=Human-made waterways Irrigation canals= Other ways humans manipulated the land in Sumer was by farmers also built up the banks of the rivers to hold back the floodwaters. What is this called? Where is this used today?Thursday, October 11, 2012
  9. 9. More major advancements Development of the wheel:Used for carts and wagonsPotter’s wheelThe plow increased farm production.Sewers under city streetsThursday, October 11, 2012
  10. 10. Religion and Government Was Sumer ruled as a: theocracy= monarchy= democracy= republic=Thursday, October 11, 2012
  11. 11. City-states The basic political units were called city-states: Consisted of a city and all the countryside surrounding it The amount of countryside in each city-state depended on its military strength.Thursday, October 11, 2012
  12. 12. Military Each city-state had large armies Gained and lost power over time Fought each other to gain more farmland Quote from reading (second to last paragraph)Thursday, October 11, 2012
  13. 13. Religious beliefs Was the Sumerian religion: polytheistic = monotheistic=Thursday, October 11, 2012
  14. 14. Polytheism in Sumer Sumerian polytheism was the basis for all Sumerian society. Gods had enormous powers. Priests had great statues built in Sumer. Priests were people who performed religious ceremonies. Priests were the first to be educated-->Thursday, October 11, 2012
  15. 15. Education in SumerThursday, October 11, 2012
  16. 16. The First Known Writing Cuneiform/context: When people lived in villages, the population group was smaller and it was easier to memorize their names, who herds belonged to, the size and amount of the crops, etc. But when cities grew, it became necessary to control and keep the data which interested the king and his government: taxes, trade transactions, contracts, wills, etc. Soon other affairs and events began to be recorded in writing. This way the first holy books, science books and literary works appeared (we will look at literature soon!).Thursday, October 11, 2012
  17. 17. Hierarchy in Sumer Social hierarchy: Kings were at the top of the order because they claimed to be chosen to rule by the gods.Social orderKingsPriestsSkilled craftspeople, merchants, and tradersLarge working class of farmers and laborersSlavesThursday, October 11, 2012
  18. 18. More on social order The king kept control of everything, from politics to religion. He passed laws to rule his country. The king was also in charge of the army which he created to protect his possessions and many times the king had religious functions. There were also civil servants who helped the king to manage his possessions (we will look at Hammarabi, the first law-maker in more depth). Land ownership: Most of the lands and riches belonged to the first ones, the privileged people. Concentration of power: The landowners were also in charge of the main public offices. How does this compare to today!!!?Thursday, October 11, 2012
  19. 19. Specialization of labor Privileged groups were a minority who had all the rights and possessed most of the wealth. The aristocracy consisted of the king, his family and the nobility. They owned a great part of the land and were in charge of the highest positions in the army and government. The priests, who lived in the temples, led the religious rituals. They possessed part of the land and craft workshops and co-operated with the government. The scribes stood out among the civil servants. They came from noble families and had great power. They were assigned other tasks such as being couriers, managers, cup-bearers, etc.Thursday, October 11, 2012
  20. 20. Continued The rest of the population was divided into either free people who had rights, or slaves who had not rights and were treated as objects.Peasants, who rented the lands that surrounded the city. These lands belonged tothe king or the temple. To keep them the peasants had to give the temple or theking part of the harvest they obtained.Peasants usually cultivated barley, wheat, beans, chickpeas, cucumbers, etc. withrudimentary ploughs.Craftsmen, who worked in workshops. There were different craftsmen according totheir specific work: weavers, carpenters, goldsmiths, perfumers, etc.Thursday, October 11, 2012
  21. 21. Art in Sumer In Sumer there was great artistic development. Through art kings magnified their power so they encouraged all kinds of art! -What was depicted on the vases from the film? *What’s the government’s relationship to art today? --In the U.S. and around the world --In modern day Middle Eastern countries?Thursday, October 11, 2012
  22. 22. Trade Cities were not self-sufficient , not all the necessities could be obtained there and people had to buy some food, raw materials and luxury products in far away regions. This process is called:Thursday, October 11, 2012