Introductions and Conclusions

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Introductions and Conclusions

  1. 1. Effective Introductions and Conclusions McAndrews
  2. 2. Effective Introductions A – – – good introduction does three things: It gets the reader’s attention. It provides background information. It focuses the reader’s attention on the main idea of the paper.
  3. 3. Effective Introductions  Why – – – bother with a good introduction? You don’t get a second chance to make a first impression. It lets the reader know what to expect. Hopefully, it will make the reader WANT to read your paper.
  4. 4. Effective Introductions  Tips – – – – Write a tentative introduction and change it later. Write your introduction last. Use an attention getter or hook. Be straightforward and confident.
  5. 5. Effective Introductions • Attention Getters (Hooks) – – – – – – Use an interesting quote Use an intriguing example Ask a thought-provoking question Write a shocking statistic Describe something or tell a story Use a metaphor
  6. 6. Guess the Hook  The boys' restroom at my high school was disgusting. The concrete walls of the restroom carried crude messages scratched into their fading green paint. All of the doors had been torn off the hinges, so there was no privacy. And the drains were nearly always clogged with the paper towels that had been left in the sinks rather than thrown in the trash. Paper towels, cigarette butts, and candy wrappers littered the dirty, wet floor. But the thing I found most disgusting was the tobacco juice that stained everything-toilets, wash basins, even the floors. This filthy bathroom reflected the attitudes of the students in this inner-city school who had as little respect for authority and learning as they did for property.
  7. 7. Guess the Hook  Like the beds in the house of the three bears that Goldilocks tried, some schools are too hard, some are too soft, and some are just right. A school in which the rules restrict the imagination and creativity of the students is too hard. One in which there are too few rules often lacks an environment where learning can take place. In a school that is just right, students' and teachers' rights are not violated by out-of-control students, yet everyone has the freedom that is essential to real learning.
  8. 8. Effective Introductions  Strategies – to Avoid Simply taking up the space by not saying much.  Example: Slavery was one of the greatest tragedies in American history. There were many different aspects of slavery. Each created different kinds of problems for enslaved people.
  9. 9. Effective Introductions  Strategies – to Avoid (con’t) Using the Webster’s Dictionary introduction  Example: Webster's dictionary defines slavery as "the state of being a slave," as "the practice of owning slaves," and as "a condition of hard work and subjection."
  10. 10. Effective Introductions  Strategies – – – to Avoid (con’t) Don’t use trite expressions, such as “In today’s society, or “For as long as man has existed.” “In this essay/paper, I will tell you…” “My name is _______ and I am going to tell you…
  11. 11. Are these introductions effective?  Is there a hook?  Does it focus your attention?  Is background information provided?
  12. 12. Introduction 1  Every writer experiences that moment: she walks into a bookstore, looks at the nearest display of whatever book is the “hot seller” that week, and wonders, “How can someone write something that bad and get published, but I can’t?” The publishing industry is known for being hyper-competitive and almost as fickle as the field of fashion design. With thousands of talented, unknown writers vying to get discovered, sometimes it seems like the answer to the question of “who gets a publishing deal this week” is as random, and as risky, as a game of Russian roulette. Writers seeking to take control of their careers and their lives need to re-evaluate the typical publishing cycle and consider whether or not self-publishing is a viable option. Self-publishing is an accessible means of pursuing the business of authorship, allows a writer to exercise more control over her intellectual property, and gives a writer the flexibility to promote her writing in a way that she finds acceptable and effective.
  13. 13. Introduction 2  When Tess of the D'Urbervilles, by Thomas Hardy, was first published in 1891, it was released in serial version for The Graphic magazine and was heavily edited to provide for the Victorian sense of modesty and decency. Many important parts of the novel were omitted, moved, or simply altered, destroying some of the novel's literary and symbolic meaning. Some of these differences between the original and edited versions completely altered the storyline of the novel, making it hard for readers to identify with characters and understand the motivation behind their actions. The edits made to Hardy's original version alter vital sections of the novel, de-emphasizing themes and character development in the process.
  14. 14. Introduction 3  Educators debate extending high school to five years because of increasing demands on students from employers and colleges to participate in extracurricular activies and community service in addition to having high grades. Some educators support extending high school to five years because they think students need more time to achieve all that is expected of them. Other educators do not support extending high school to five years because they think students would lose interest in school and attendance would drop in the fifth year. Both sides have strong points, but I agree with the educators who say that their shouldn't be an extension to high school adding a fifth year.
  15. 15. Introduction 4  If you ever ask a highschool student whether they would want to go one more year very few would say yes. I would, not because I like school, not because I enjoy spending six hours cooped up inside, but because I could use one more year to just be sure I am completely prepared for college. Along with this I feel that because we are required to take tenth grade graduation test and most of our tenth grade year is spent preparing for this test.
  16. 16. Writing Conclusions A – – – – good conclusion: Gives the reader a sense of completion Re-emphasizes the thesis in some way May briefly summarize the main points Confirms the reader’s understanding of what he or she read
  17. 17. Writing Conclusions Why bother with a good conclusion? – Readers often remember it the most.
  18. 18. Writing Conclusions  Different Types – – Restatement of main idea. The main idea may be reemphasized or reinforced. If you choose this type of conclusion be sure not to merely repeat your thesis. You not only should vary the wording so that your conclusion is not too similar to your introduction but should also try to get beyond your thesis statement. General impression. If your essay is basically a description of an experience or of some person, place, or thing, an effective conclusion might consist of a statement of the dominant impression you have attempted to convey.
  19. 19. Writing Conclusions  Different Types – – Recommendation. An essay can be concluded with a suggestion for some action the writer feels should be taken. This type of conclusion is especially appropriate if the main idea is a controversial statement or one that is persuasive in nature. Prediction. Even though a conclusion is the final part of an essay, it can be used to make a prediction on the basis of the major points made in the essay. This prediction should be closely related to the content of the essay, giving a reasonable explanation of what may happen.
  20. 20. Writing Conclusions  Tips – – – – – – Do not contradict yourself. Do not introduce a new topic. Do not end with a cliché. Do not apologize for lack of knowledge or resources. Make your conclusion brief and to the point. Make sure the tone is consistent with the rest of your essay.

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