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Age of Dinos Lab II Lab II <ul><li>The Vertebrate Skeleton </li></ul>
The Functions of the Skeleton <ul><li>A reservoir of chemicals needed in metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>A structural support...
Bone <ul><li>Composed of mineral and protein </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral is hydroxyapatite, a calcium phosphate compound </l...
Divisions within the skeleton <ul><li>Axial skeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bones of the skull and vertebral column </li></...
 
The Skull <ul><li>Houses brain and sensory organs </li></ul><ul><li>Houses feeding structures </li></ul><ul><li>Houses mus...
Openings for the Spinal Chord <ul><li>Foramen Magnum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>means ‘big hole’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ope...
 
Openings for Sensory Organs <ul><li>Naris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bony opening for the nostril </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choana...
Openings for the Jaw Muscles <ul><li>Temporal Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>part of skull behind the orbit  </li></ul></ul>...
Fenestrae <ul><li>Openings in the skull that allow muscles to get bigger </li></ul><ul><li>Four major groups of Fenestrae ...
Openings for Air Sacs <ul><li>These chambers are called pneumatic </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with air </li></ul><ul><li>Func...
 
The Vertebral Column <ul><li>Cervical Vertebrae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vertebrae of the neck </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dorsal ...
Vertebrae (cont.) <ul><li>Sacral Vertebrae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pelvic bones are solidly attached to these </li></ul></ul...
Ribs <ul><li>Ribs are attached to most vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>Called either cervical, dorsal, sacral, or caudal ribs ...
Haemal arches <ul><li>Found below caudal vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>Have a V-shaped profile from the front </li></ul><ul>...
 
Pectoral Girdle <ul><li>Scapula  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the shoulder game </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coracoid </li></ul><ul><ul...
Pectoral Girdle (cont.) <ul><li>Glenoid Fossa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>socket in the scapula and the coracoid that abuts the ...
 
The Forlimb <ul><li>Humerus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>upper arm bone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radius </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one o...
The Forelimb (cont.) <ul><li>Ulna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one of the bones of the lower arm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forms...
The Forelimb (cont.) <ul><li>Carpals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bones of the wrist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metacarpals </li></ul...
 
The Pelvic Girdle <ul><li>Acetabulum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hip socket formed from the junction of the three pelvic bones <...
The Pelvic Girdle (cont.) <ul><li>Pubis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms lower part of acetabulum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ischiu...
 
The Hindlimb <ul><li>Femur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large bone of the upper leg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibula </li></ul><ul><...
The Hindlimb (cont.) <ul><li>Tibia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inner bone of the lower leg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>much large...
The Hindlimb (cont.) <ul><li>Metatarsals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>long bones of the foot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phalanges </l...
 
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Age of Dinosaurs Lab 2: The Vertebrate Skeleton

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Age of Dinosaurs Lab 2: The Vertebrate Skeleton

  1. 1. Age of Dinos Lab II Lab II <ul><li>The Vertebrate Skeleton </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Functions of the Skeleton <ul><li>A reservoir of chemicals needed in metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>A structural support for soft tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Armor for vulnerable body parts </li></ul><ul><li>A framework upon which muscles may act to facilitate movement </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bone <ul><li>Composed of mineral and protein </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral is hydroxyapatite, a calcium phosphate compound </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins structure is complex and includes several substances </li></ul>
  4. 4. Divisions within the skeleton <ul><li>Axial skeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bones of the skull and vertebral column </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appendicular skeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bones of the limbs and limb girdles </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. The Skull <ul><li>Houses brain and sensory organs </li></ul><ul><li>Houses feeding structures </li></ul><ul><li>Houses muscles that operate the jaw </li></ul>
  6. 7. Openings for the Spinal Chord <ul><li>Foramen Magnum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>means ‘big hole’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opening at the back of the skull where the spinal chord exits </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Openings for Sensory Organs <ul><li>Naris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bony opening for the nostril </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choana </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bony opening on the palate that communicates with the Naris </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Orbit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bony eye socket </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Openings for the Jaw Muscles <ul><li>Temporal Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>part of skull behind the orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>houses braincase and muscles of the jaw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abductor Chamber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the temporal region where jaw muscles attached </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Fenestrae <ul><li>Openings in the skull that allow muscles to get bigger </li></ul><ul><li>Four major groups of Fenestrae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posttemporal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infratemporal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supratemporal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandibular </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Openings for Air Sacs <ul><li>These chambers are called pneumatic </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with air </li></ul><ul><li>Function unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Two major groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antorbital fenestra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maxillary fenestra </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. The Vertebral Column <ul><li>Cervical Vertebrae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vertebrae of the neck </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dorsal Vertebrae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vertebrae of the back </li></ul></ul>
  12. 15. Vertebrae (cont.) <ul><li>Sacral Vertebrae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pelvic bones are solidly attached to these </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caudal Vertebrae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vertebrae of the tail </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Ribs <ul><li>Ribs are attached to most vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>Called either cervical, dorsal, sacral, or caudal ribs </li></ul>
  14. 17. Haemal arches <ul><li>Found below caudal vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>Have a V-shaped profile from the front </li></ul><ul><li>Look like commas from the side </li></ul>
  15. 19. Pectoral Girdle <ul><li>Scapula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the shoulder game </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coracoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>greatly reduced in mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abuts the scapula </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. Pectoral Girdle (cont.) <ul><li>Glenoid Fossa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>socket in the scapula and the coracoid that abuts the humerus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clavicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the collar bone </li></ul></ul>
  17. 22. The Forlimb <ul><li>Humerus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>upper arm bone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radius </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one of two lower arm bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on the same side as your thumb </li></ul></ul>
  18. 23. The Forelimb (cont.) <ul><li>Ulna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one of the bones of the lower arm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forms the elbow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>looks like a wrench </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. The Forelimb (cont.) <ul><li>Carpals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bones of the wrist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metacarpals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>long bones of the hand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phalanges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bones of the fingers </li></ul></ul>
  20. 26. The Pelvic Girdle <ul><li>Acetabulum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hip socket formed from the junction of the three pelvic bones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ilium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forms the upper third of the acetabulum and extends above it </li></ul></ul>
  21. 27. The Pelvic Girdle (cont.) <ul><li>Pubis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms lower part of acetabulum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ischium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forms lower rear part of acetabulum </li></ul></ul>
  22. 29. The Hindlimb <ul><li>Femur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large bone of the upper leg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the outer long bone of the lower leg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>much smaller than the tibia </li></ul></ul>
  23. 30. The Hindlimb (cont.) <ul><li>Tibia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inner bone of the lower leg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>much larger than the fibula </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tarsals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ankle bones </li></ul></ul>
  24. 31. The Hindlimb (cont.) <ul><li>Metatarsals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>long bones of the foot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phalanges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bones of toes </li></ul></ul>

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