Age of Dinosaurs Geological Methods
Who am I? <ul><li>Jeff Matzke </li></ul><ul><li>Email:  [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Phone: (920)227-3779 </li></ul><...
Office Hours <ul><li>15H Trowbridge Hall </li></ul><ul><li>Monday 4:30 - 5:30 </li></ul><ul><li>Wednesday 10:30 - 11:30 </...
Types of Rocks <ul><li>Igneous  </li></ul><ul><li>Metamorphic </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentary </li></ul>
Igneous Rocks <ul><li>Formed by the cooling of magma or lava </li></ul><ul><li>Two types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrusive o...
Metamorphic <ul><li>Formed by exposing any other rock type to enough heat and pressure to be able to rearrange the molecul...
Sedimentary <ul><li>Formed when the weathered sediment from any other type of rock settles and is cemented together </li><...
Types of Sedimentary Rocks <ul><li>Clastic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>formed from weathered rock material (mudstone, siltstone,...
Dating Rocks <ul><li>Relative Dating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dating rocks in relation to each other (this rock layer is olde...
Superposition <ul><li>Rock layers become younger towards the top of a series of layers </li></ul>
Original Horizontality <ul><ul><li>It is always assumed that a rock layer is put down horizontally and any deviation from ...
Lateral Continuity <ul><li>If the same apparent rock layer is found across a valley, it is assumed to be the same rock lay...
Cross-cutting Relationships <ul><li>If a rock layer is disrupted by cracks and other types or rocks are found in those cra...
Faunal Succession <ul><li>Sedimentary rocks that have the same biological communities found within them are of the same ag...
Absolute Dating <ul><li>Some elements are unstable and decay into other elements (Uranium-238 decays into Lead-206) </li><...
Radiometric Dating <ul><li>It is only possible to radiometrically date igneous rocks </li></ul><ul><li>So if you want to d...
Radiometric Dating (example) <ul><li>Potassium-40 decays into Argon-40 with a half life of 1.248 billion years. You find a...
(cont.) <ul><li>624 million years </li></ul>
Geological Time <ul><li>The Earth is really old (4.6 billion years) </li></ul><ul><li>We break that time up into the Geolo...
Units of Geological Time <ul><li>Hierarchical System (like biological classification </li></ul><ul><li>Units </li></ul><ul...
Phanerozoic Eon <ul><li>The last 540 million years </li></ul><ul><li>Name means ‘visible life’ </li></ul><ul><li>Broken up...
Mesozoic Era <ul><li>The Age of the Dinosaurs </li></ul><ul><li>Begins with the Permian-Triassic Extinction event 251 mill...
Mesozoic Era (cont.) <ul><li>Triassic Period: 250-200 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Jurassic Period: 200-145 million...
Stuff to take away  <ul><li>There are three types of rocks; igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil...
Stuff to take away (cont.) <ul><li>By using superposition, faunal correlation, and radiometric dating we can put geologica...
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Age of Dinosaurs Lab 1: Geological Methods

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The lecture given during week 1 of Age of Dinosaurs lab

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Age of Dinosaurs Lab 1: Geological Methods

  1. 1. Age of Dinosaurs Geological Methods
  2. 2. Who am I? <ul><li>Jeff Matzke </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Phone: (920)227-3779 </li></ul><ul><li>Office: 15H Trowbridge Hall </li></ul>
  3. 3. Office Hours <ul><li>15H Trowbridge Hall </li></ul><ul><li>Monday 4:30 - 5:30 </li></ul><ul><li>Wednesday 10:30 - 11:30 </li></ul><ul><li>Friday 12:30 - 1:30 </li></ul><ul><li>If none of these times work for you feel free to email me to set up an appointment </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Rocks <ul><li>Igneous </li></ul><ul><li>Metamorphic </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentary </li></ul>
  5. 5. Igneous Rocks <ul><li>Formed by the cooling of magma or lava </li></ul><ul><li>Two types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrusive or Plutonic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrusive of Volcanic </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Metamorphic <ul><li>Formed by exposing any other rock type to enough heat and pressure to be able to rearrange the molecules in the rock </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sedimentary <ul><li>Formed when the weathered sediment from any other type of rock settles and is cemented together </li></ul><ul><li>Fossils are usually only found in in these </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Sedimentary Rocks <ul><li>Clastic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>formed from weathered rock material (mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, ect.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-clastic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually formed through animal or plant processes (limestone and coal) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Dating Rocks <ul><li>Relative Dating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dating rocks in relation to each other (this rock layer is older than that rock layer) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absolute Dating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving a date for when the rock layer was laid down (this rock layer is 3.15 million years old) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Superposition <ul><li>Rock layers become younger towards the top of a series of layers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Original Horizontality <ul><ul><li>It is always assumed that a rock layer is put down horizontally and any deviation from the horizontal happened after deposition </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Lateral Continuity <ul><li>If the same apparent rock layer is found across a valley, it is assumed to be the same rock layer unless there is evidence to the contrary </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cross-cutting Relationships <ul><li>If a rock layer is disrupted by cracks and other types or rocks are found in those cracks, the rocks found in the cracks are older than the rocks that are cracked </li></ul>
  14. 14. Faunal Succession <ul><li>Sedimentary rocks that have the same biological communities found within them are of the same age </li></ul>
  15. 15. Absolute Dating <ul><li>Some elements are unstable and decay into other elements (Uranium-238 decays into Lead-206) </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of time it takes for one half of a sample to decay into the daughter material is called a Half-Life </li></ul>
  16. 16. Radiometric Dating <ul><li>It is only possible to radiometrically date igneous rocks </li></ul><ul><li>So if you want to date a fossil you will have to find it between to igneous rock layers and then use relative dating methods </li></ul>
  17. 17. Radiometric Dating (example) <ul><li>Potassium-40 decays into Argon-40 with a half life of 1.248 billion years. You find a layer of igneous rock that has 75% of the original Potassium-40 and 25% Argon-40. How old is this rock layer? </li></ul>
  18. 18. (cont.) <ul><li>624 million years </li></ul>
  19. 19. Geological Time <ul><li>The Earth is really old (4.6 billion years) </li></ul><ul><li>We break that time up into the Geological Time Scale </li></ul>
  20. 20. Units of Geological Time <ul><li>Hierarchical System (like biological classification </li></ul><ul><li>Units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epoch </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Phanerozoic Eon <ul><li>The last 540 million years </li></ul><ul><li>Name means ‘visible life’ </li></ul><ul><li>Broken up into the Paleozoic Era, the Mesozoic Era, and the Cenozoic Era </li></ul>
  22. 22. Mesozoic Era <ul><li>The Age of the Dinosaurs </li></ul><ul><li>Begins with the Permian-Triassic Extinction event 251 million years ago </li></ul>
  23. 23. Mesozoic Era (cont.) <ul><li>Triassic Period: 250-200 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Jurassic Period: 200-145 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Cretaceous Period: 145-65 million years ago </li></ul>
  24. 24. Stuff to take away <ul><li>There are three types of rocks; igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary </li></ul><ul><li>Fossils form in sedimentary rocks </li></ul><ul><li>There are two ways to date rocks; relative and absolute dating </li></ul>
  25. 25. Stuff to take away (cont.) <ul><li>By using superposition, faunal correlation, and radiometric dating we can put geological events in sequence </li></ul><ul><li>The Phanerozoic Eon is broken up into the Paleozoic Era, the Mesozoic Era, and the Cenozoic Era </li></ul><ul><li>The Mesozoic is broken up into the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous (know the dates for the beginning and end of these periods) </li></ul>

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