Chapter 1 Notes


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Chapter 1 Notes

  1. 2. Chapter Introduction Section 1 Early Humans Section 2 Mesopotamian Civilization Section 3 The First Empires Reading Review Chapter Assessment The First Civilizations Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  2. 3. The First Civilizations
  3. 4. Locating Places <ul><li>Jericho (JEHR • ih•KOH) </li></ul><ul><li>Çatal Hüyük (chah•TAHL hoo•YOOK) </li></ul>Early Humans Get Ready to Read (cont.)
  4. 5. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>historian (hih•STOHR•ee•uhn) </li></ul><ul><li>archaeologist ( AHR •kee•AH•luh•jihst) </li></ul><ul><li>artifact (AHR•tih• FAKT ) </li></ul><ul><li>fossil (FAH•suhl) </li></ul><ul><li>anthropologist ( AN •thruh•PAH•luh•jihst) </li></ul>Early Humans <ul><li>nomad (NOH• MAD ) </li></ul>
  5. 6. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>technology (tehk•NAH•luh•jee) </li></ul><ul><li>domesticate (duh•MEHS•tih• KAYT ) </li></ul><ul><li>specialization ( SPEH •shuh•luh•ZAY•shuhn) </li></ul>Early Humans
  6. 7. Early Humans <ul><li>History is the story of humans in the past, and historians are the people who study and write about humans of the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeologists hunt for evidence buried in the ground. </li></ul>(pages 9 – 11) Early Humans
  7. 8. Early Humans Early Humans (pages 9 – 11)
  8. 9. Early Humans (cont.) <ul><li>The early period of human history is called the Stone Age. </li></ul><ul><li>The earliest part of the Stone Age is called the Paleolithic period. </li></ul><ul><li>Paleolithic people were nomads, traveling from place to place to hunt and search for food. </li></ul>Early Humans <ul><li>Anthropologists study how humans developed and related to each other. </li></ul>(pages 9 – 11)
  9. 10. Early Humans (cont.) <ul><li>Paleolithic women cared for children and gathered berries, nuts, and grains. </li></ul><ul><li>Paleolithic men hunted animals using clubs, spears, traps, and bows and arrows. </li></ul><ul><li>Paleolithic people adapted to their environment. </li></ul>Early Humans (pages 9 – 11)
  10. 11. Early Humans (cont.) <ul><li>Those in warm climates wore little clothing and had little need for shelter. </li></ul><ul><li>Those in cold climates used caves for shelter. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, they learned to create shelters from animal hides and wooden poles. </li></ul>Early Humans (pages 9 – 11)
  11. 12. Early Humans (cont.) <ul><li>Paleolithic people discovered fire, which kept them warm, lit the darkness, and cooked food. </li></ul><ul><li>Long periods of extreme cold are called the Ice Ages. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Ice Ages, thick sheets of ice covered parts of Europe, Asia, and North America. </li></ul>Early Humans (pages 9 – 11)
  12. 13. Early Humans (cont.) <ul><li>Paleolithic people developed spoken language and expressed themselves through art, which may have had religious meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>During this time, humans created tools such as spears and hand axes using stone called flint. </li></ul>Early Humans (pages 9 – 11)
  13. 14. How did spoken language help the Paleolithic people? Language made it easier for people to work together and pass on knowledge. Early Humans
  14. 15. Neolithic Times <ul><li>In the beginning of the Neolithic Age, people began to domesticate, or tame, animals . </li></ul>(pages 13 – 15) <ul><li>Domesticated animals carried goods and provided meat, milk, and wool. </li></ul><ul><li>People in different parts of the world began growing crops about the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Historians call this change the farming revolution. </li></ul>Early Humans
  15. 16. Neolithic Times (cont.) <ul><li>Because farmers needed to stay close to their fields, they built permanent homes in villages . </li></ul><ul><li>One of the oldest villages is Jericho in present-day Israel and Jordan. </li></ul><ul><li>Another Neolithic village is Çatal Hüyük in present-day Turkey. </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent villages provided people with security and steady food. </li></ul>Early Humans (pages 13 – 15)
  16. 17. Neolithic Times (cont.) <ul><li>The surplus food led to a larger population . </li></ul><ul><li>Not all people in a village were farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Some made pottery, mats, and cloth. </li></ul><ul><li>They traded these goods for things they did not have. </li></ul>Early Humans (pages 13 – 15)
  17. 18. Neolithic Times (cont.) <ul><li>People continued to create new technology . </li></ul><ul><li>They created better farming tools and began working with metal, copper, and tin. </li></ul><ul><li>They also began working with bronze. </li></ul>Early Humans (pages 13 – 15)
  18. 19. Why was farming important to the Neolithic people? Farming allowed people to settle in one place, and it provided a steady food supply. Early Humans
  19. 20. Explain Why were Paleolithic people nomads? They moved around to hunt animals and gather other foods. Early Humans
  20. 21. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Tigris River (TY•gruhs) </li></ul><ul><li>Euphrates River (yu•FRAY•teez) </li></ul><ul><li>Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>(MEH•suh•puh•TAY•mee•uh) </li></ul><ul><li>Sumer (SOO•muhr) </li></ul><ul><li>Babylon (BA•buh•luhn) </li></ul>Mesopotamian Civilization
  21. 22. Get Ready to Read (cont.) <ul><li>Sargon (SAHR• GAHN ) </li></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi (HA•muh•RAH•bee) </li></ul>Meeting People Mesopotamian Civilization
  22. 23. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>civilization ( SIH •vuh•luh•ZAY•shuhn) </li></ul><ul><li>irrigation ( IHR •uh•GAY•shuhn) </li></ul><ul><li>city-state </li></ul><ul><li>artisan (AHR•tuh•zuhn) </li></ul><ul><li>cuneiform (kyoo•NEE•uh• FAWRM ) </li></ul><ul><li>scribe (SKRYB) </li></ul><ul><li>empire (EHM• PYR ) </li></ul>Mesopotamian Civilization
  23. 24. Mesopotamia’s Civilization <ul><li>Rivers were important because they made for good farming conditions . </li></ul><ul><li>They also made it easy for people to travel and trade . </li></ul><ul><li>Civilizations are complex societies with cities, governments, art, religion, class divisions, and a writing system . </li></ul>(pages 17 – 20) <ul><li>Governments were formed because someone had to make plans and decisions for the common good . </li></ul>Mesopotamian Civilization
  24. 25. <ul><li>Floods in Mesopotamia were frequent and unpredictable . </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers learned to control the rivers with dams and channels . </li></ul><ul><li>Mesopotamia is a flat plain bounded by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers . </li></ul>Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) <ul><li>They also used the rivers to irrigate, or water, their crops . </li></ul>Mesopotamian Civilization (pages 17 – 20)
  25. 26. <ul><li>Sumerian cities were city-states, with their own governments . </li></ul><ul><li>Sumerian cities often fought each other . </li></ul><ul><li>Many cities formed in a southern region of Mesopotamia known as Sumer . </li></ul>Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) <ul><li>To protect themselves, the city-states built walls around themselves . </li></ul>Mesopotamian Civilization (pages 17 – 20)
  26. 27. <ul><li>Each city-state had a ziggurat, or grand temple, to honor the gods. </li></ul><ul><li>Sumerians believed in many gods . </li></ul>Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) Mesopotamian Civilization (pages 17 – 20)
  27. 28. <ul><li>Most Sumerians were farmers, but some were artisans, or skilled workers . </li></ul>Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) <ul><li>Others were merchants and traders . </li></ul>Mesopotamian Civilization <ul><li>Sumerian city-states had three classes . </li></ul><ul><li>The upper class consisted of kings, priests, and government officials. </li></ul><ul><li>The middle class consisted of artisans, merchants, fishers, and farmers . </li></ul>(pages 17 – 20)
  28. 29. Mesopotamia’s Civilization (cont.) <ul><li>The lower class consisted of slaves . </li></ul>Mesopotamian Civilization (pages 17 – 20)
  29. 30. What effect did irrigation have on the people of Mesopotamia? Irrigation allowed farmers to grow plenty of food. More food meant more people could be fed, so the population grew. Mesopotamian Civilization
  30. 31. A Skilled People <ul><li>Writing helps people keep records and pass on ideas . </li></ul><ul><li>Mesopotamia has been called the cradle of civilization because of the influence of Sumerian ideas on other areas. </li></ul>(pages 20 – 21) <ul><li>Sumerians developed a writing system called cuneiform . </li></ul><ul><li>Only a few people, called scribes, learned to write. </li></ul>Mesopotamian Civilization
  31. 32. A Skilled People (cont.) <ul><li>The Sumerians also invented new technology such as the wagon wheel, the sailboat, and the plow . </li></ul><ul><li>The Sumerians also produced the oldest known story, the Epic of Gilgamesh . </li></ul><ul><li>The Sumerians developed many mathematical ideas, including geometry, a number system based on 60, and a 12-month calendar. </li></ul>Mesopotamian Civilization (pages 20 – 21)
  32. 33. Sargon and Hammurabi <ul><li>Sargon, the king of the Akkadians, conquered all of Mesopotamia and set up the world’s first empire . </li></ul>(page 23) <ul><li>An empire is a group of many different lands under one ruler . </li></ul><ul><li>After Sargon, another group of people became powerful . </li></ul><ul><li>They built the city of Babylon on the Euphrates River . </li></ul>Mesopotamian Civilization
  33. 34. Sargon and Hammurabi (cont.) <ul><li>The Babylonian king, Hammurabi, conquered lands north and south of Babylon to create the Babylonian Empire . </li></ul>(page 23) <ul><li>The Code of Hammurabi was a collection of laws covering crimes, farming, business activities, and marriage and family . </li></ul><ul><li>Many punishments in the code were cruel, but the code was an important step in the development of a justice system . </li></ul>Mesopotamian Civilization
  34. 35. What is civilization? a complex society with cities, an organized government, art, religion, a system of writing, and class divisions Mesopotamian Civilization
  35. 36. a set of laws that the Babylonian leader Hammurabi established for his empire What was the Code of Hammurabi? Mesopotamian Civilization
  36. 37. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Assyria (uh•SIHR•ee•uh) </li></ul><ul><li>Persian Gulf (PUHR•zhuhn) </li></ul><ul><li>Nineveh (NIH•nuh•vuh ) </li></ul><ul><li>Hanging Gardens </li></ul>Meeting People <ul><li>Nebuchadnezzar </li></ul><ul><li>( NEH •byuh•kuhd•NEH•zuhr) </li></ul>The First Empires
  37. 38. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>province (PRAH•vuhns) </li></ul><ul><li>astronomer (uh•STRAH•nuh•muhr) </li></ul><ul><li>caravan (KAR•uh• VAN ) </li></ul>Reading Strategy Compare and Contrast Complete a Venn diagram like the one on page 26 of your textbook. List the similarities and differences between the Assyrian Empire and the Chaldean Empire. The First Empires
  38. 39. The Assyrians <ul><li>The Assyrian empire arose about 1,000 years after the rule of Hammurabi. </li></ul><ul><li>The Assyrian army was the first large army to use iron weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>Their weapons were stronger than those of copper and tin. </li></ul>(pages 27 – 28) The First Empires
  39. 40. <ul><li>They fought with spears, daggers, bows and arrows, chariots and soldiers on horseback. </li></ul>The Assyrians (cont.) The First Empires (pages 27 – 28)
  40. 41. <ul><li>The empire was divided into provinces, which are political districts. </li></ul><ul><li>Each province was governed by an official who collected taxes and enforced laws. </li></ul><ul><li>The capital of the Assyrian empire was Nineveh. </li></ul>The Assyrians (cont.) The First Empires (pages 27 – 28)
  41. 42. <ul><li>One of the first libraries was in Nineveh and held 25,000 tablets of stories and songs. </li></ul><ul><li>People began to rebel because of Assyria’s cruel treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>The Assyrians built large temples and palaces, with statues and wall carvings. </li></ul>The Assyrians (cont.) <ul><li>The Chaldeans rebelled and took control of Nineveh in 612 B.C. </li></ul>The First Empires (pages 27 – 28)
  42. 43. The Chaldeans <ul><li>The Chaldeans, who were descendents of Babylonians, rebuilt Babylon. </li></ul><ul><li>Nebuchadnezzar was the king of the Chaldeans. </li></ul>(pages 29 – 30) <ul><li>The city became the center of the Chaldeans’ empire. </li></ul><ul><li>The city was surrounded by a huge wall. Inside the wall were palaces, temples, and a huge ziggurat. </li></ul>The First Empires
  43. 44. The Chaldeans (cont.) <ul><li>The Hanging Gardens were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. </li></ul><ul><li>Nebechadnezzar ordered the Hanging Gardens to be built for his wife, who missed her green, mountainous homeland. </li></ul>The First Empires (pages 29 – 30)
  44. 45. The Chaldeans (cont.) <ul><li>The Chaldeans were merchants, artisans, and traders. </li></ul><ul><li>Babylon was on a major trade route and profited from trade. </li></ul>The First Empires (pages 29 – 30)
  45. 46. The Chaldeans (cont.) <ul><li>Their astronomers (people who study the heavenly bodies) mapped the stars, planets, and phases of the moon. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chaldeans studied the sky to understand the gods. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chaldeans lost control of their empire to the Persians. </li></ul>The First Empires (pages 29 – 30)
  46. 47. What made Babylon the world’s richest city? Being on a major trade route meant merchants and artisans benefited from trade. The city also had beautiful structures, such as the Hanging Gardens and the Ishtar Gate. The First Empires
  47. 48. The First Empires Why was the Assyrian army a powerful fighting force? It had a well-organized army with advanced weapons.
  48. 49. Section 1: Early Humans Focusing on the Main Ideas The First Civilizations <ul><li>Paleolithic people adapted to their environment and invented many tools to help them survive. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Neolithic Age, people started farming, building communities, producing goods, and trading. </li></ul>
  49. 50. Section 2: Mesopotamian Civilization Focusing on the Main Ideas <ul><li>Civilization in Mesopotamia began in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Sumerians invented writing and made other important contributions to later peoples. </li></ul><ul><li>Sumerian city-states lost power when they were conquered by outsiders. </li></ul>The First Civilizations
  50. 51. Focusing on the Main Ideas <ul><li>Assyria’s military power and well-organized government helped it build a vast empire in Mesopotamia by 650 B.C . </li></ul><ul><li>The Chaldean Empire built important landmarks in Babylon and developed the first calendar with a seven-day week. </li></ul>Section 3: The First Empires The First Civilizations
  51. 52. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  52. 54. The Chaldeans in today’s Iraq still speak Aramaic, the language of ancient Babylon. The First Empires
  53. 55. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1–2 Chapter 1