Developmental Art in the Low      Literacy ClassroomJean Marrapodi  jmarrapodi@applestar.org  @jmarrapodi 401-440-6165
Context Adult Sunday School Class Liberian refugees Senior citizens, age unknown (not tracked in  Liberia) Meet 1 hour...
Preamble: Spring 2006 Lesson One: Palm Sunday  Draw a picture to illustrate the story  Could not do.  Through a transl...
Preamble Two Lesson Two: Easter   Ok, let’s copy some drawings to tell the story.   We can’t do that.
Preamble Three Let’s try to copy some symbols then.   Could not complete    unless dots were drawn    to connect the lin...
No Print Awareness  Elizabeth loves Jesus             Switched cards:  Jesus    loves Elizabeth     Said: Elizabeth loves ...
Reading Art: Part OneIsabella Stewart Gardner       Adam and EveMuseum, Boston                           C                ...
Reading Art: Part Two
What time of year is it?
Setting One: October 2010 Pastor Appreciation Sunday Given a template with prompts:   Pastor Berkley is ___________   ...
Setting Two (following week) Given blank paper and markers Draw a picture of you with your grandchildren Teacher wrote ...
Annie K.
Elizabeth
Martha
Essah
Kumba
Annie G.
Frances            * Granddaughter came over to “help”        **        *    *
Setting Three (following week) Discussion about houses in America vs Liberia Let’s draw pictures of your houses here and...
MarthaMartha lives in anapartment building.
ElizabethAmerica on the left.Liberia on the right.Elizabeth lives inapartment 511 in a highrise building. She takesan elev...
Annie K.Annie lives on in a triple-decker in RI.
Annie G.   Annie lives on in a two story single           family home.
FrancesFrances lives on the firstfloor of a two storyhouse.
KumbaKumba lives intownhouse typeapartments in a complex
EssahEssah lives in a secondfloor apartment.
Setting Four Kumba’s spontaneous drawings brought from home in the subsequent weeks.
Other Projects Painting background for nativities – 12/2009 Cutting snowflakes – 1/2011
Parallels to Children’s Work?Does their natural development mirror emergentliteracy?
Drawings of people by nurseryschool children   http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.h...
Tadpole Figure  By a pre-             From a severely                    By a pre- school child              mentally     ...
Sarah – 3.2 to 3.4 years                            people     a cat, Tyrannosaurus rex, and a leopard     http://psycholo...
Helen, 4.5 – 5.5 years    http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html
Abby, Age 4
Rachel, Age 7
Developmental ArtDevelopment in Children
Callaghan Phases of Development                Callaghan, T.C. (2008) The origins and Development of Pictorial            ...
Donley, S.K. 1985/1987Adapted from teacher inservice training materials for earlychildhood, art education, and special edu...
Rhoda Kellogg: GestaltsKellogg, R. (1969) Analyzing children’s art. Paolo Alto, CA: National Press Books. P 109
Kellog’s Schemeof the Evolutionof PictorialWorkCommonSequences                   Kellogg, R. (1969) Analyzing children’s a...
House-Tree-Person/Kinetic HTPMeasure aspects of person’s personality 3 years-adultCommon in art therapyQuestionable validi...
Josiah, Age 4
Noah, Age 6
Rachel, Age 8
Micah, Age 10
Annie K.
Frances
Kumba
Martha
Elizabeth
Essah
Value of Using Art "This adapted Kinetic-House-Tree-Person for adults with developmental disabilities holds promise for pr...
Value of Using Art "...there is evidence of a relationship between thought and drawing that becomes visible through the st...
Is It Cultural?
Alexander Alland, 1983               240 children’s drawings               Six cultures                 Bali           ...
Ponape  Now Pohnpie, Micronesia                                     Male, 4 years, 19 minutes     Female, 5 years, 5 minut...
Bali                                     Male, 3.3 years, 30 minutes     Female, 4.6 years, 25 minutes   Overall density...
Taiwan                                         Female, 4.8 years, 10 minutes     Female, 6.8 years Long heritage of art ...
Japan                                     Male, 5.6years, 27 minutes    Female, 3.10 years, 14 minutes Modern aesthetic i...
Alexander Alland, 1983              Conclusions:                “…the two most important elements                       in...
What we know about Liberia’s Art                          Dan, Mano, Kran , Kpelle tribal art Known for their  carved mas...
Relating this to Writing
Children Create Letters in Art"Most of the letters of the English alphabet, both capitals and lower-case forms, are made b...
Charlie’s Story
Not seeing letters, but shapes
Elizabeth did the same thing
Learning to Read and Write Art “...human artistry   is viewed first and foremost as an activity of the mind, an activity t...
Working with Clay
Women at the tomb   (Annie G.)                           Jesus and                         Mary Magdalene                 ...
Women and a man                         (Martha)Women and the angel    (Kumba)
Elizabeth’s mortars and bowl
Essah
On it Goes
Visual Literacy? Not yet.Christmas 2012Tell the story with the stickers.
Pictionary
So what? And now what?What have you seen here?Have you seen this in your classroom?Is drawing a precursor to writing?How c...
Sources   Alland, A. (1983). Playing with Form. New York: Columbia Universtiy Press   Brooks, M. (2002). Drawing to lear...
Adult Literacy Students Draw            Jean Marrapodi   jmarrapodi@applestar.org              @jmarrapodi             401...
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
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  • Gesell (1948) used "drawing to investigate the child mind. When he asked three year olds to copy geometric shapes - squares, circles, triangles, crosses, diamonds - they did rather poorly. Yet the normal child of this age spontaneously draws esthetic versions of these geometric forms except for the diamond. Apparently, the mental activity involved in copy work differs from that needed for spontaneous art.“ Kellogg, p 179
  • Basic ScribblesDiagrams and CombinesAggregatesSunsSun faces and figuresHumans with head-top markings and with arms attached to the headHumans without head-top markingsArmless humansHumans with varied torsosHumans with arms attached to the torsoRelatively complete human imagesKellogg, R. (1969). Analyzing Children’s Art. Palo Alto, CA: National Press Books p 109
  • Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom

    1. 1. Developmental Art in the Low Literacy ClassroomJean Marrapodi  jmarrapodi@applestar.org  @jmarrapodi 401-440-6165
    2. 2. Context Adult Sunday School Class Liberian refugees Senior citizens, age unknown (not tracked in Liberia) Meet 1 hour/week for past 5 years
    3. 3. Preamble: Spring 2006 Lesson One: Palm Sunday  Draw a picture to illustrate the story  Could not do.  Through a translator: “We can’t do that. We haven’t practiced like you have to be able to do that.”
    4. 4. Preamble Two Lesson Two: Easter  Ok, let’s copy some drawings to tell the story.  We can’t do that.
    5. 5. Preamble Three Let’s try to copy some symbols then.  Could not complete unless dots were drawn to connect the lines.  Circles were misshapen and barely recognizable.
    6. 6. No Print Awareness Elizabeth loves Jesus Switched cards: Jesus loves Elizabeth Said: Elizabeth loves Jesus.
    7. 7. Reading Art: Part OneIsabella Stewart Gardner Adam and EveMuseum, Boston C H A T T E R Ho-hum !
    8. 8. Reading Art: Part Two
    9. 9. What time of year is it?
    10. 10. Setting One: October 2010 Pastor Appreciation Sunday Given a template with prompts:  Pastor Berkley is ___________  Pastor Michele is ___________  I love my pastors! Learned what the prompts said. Asked to come up with a word to fill in. They either copied the word or had teacher spell it. Draw a picture of you and the pastors.
    11. 11. Setting Two (following week) Given blank paper and markers Draw a picture of you with your grandchildren Teacher wrote names of children
    12. 12. Annie K.
    13. 13. Elizabeth
    14. 14. Martha
    15. 15. Essah
    16. 16. Kumba
    17. 17. Annie G.
    18. 18. Frances * Granddaughter came over to “help” ** * *
    19. 19. Setting Three (following week) Discussion about houses in America vs Liberia Let’s draw pictures of your houses here and in Liberia. Given blank paper and markers Teacher wrote words as given prompts
    20. 20. MarthaMartha lives in anapartment building.
    21. 21. ElizabethAmerica on the left.Liberia on the right.Elizabeth lives inapartment 511 in a highrise building. She takesan elevator to get to herapartment.
    22. 22. Annie K.Annie lives on in a triple-decker in RI.
    23. 23. Annie G. Annie lives on in a two story single family home.
    24. 24. FrancesFrances lives on the firstfloor of a two storyhouse.
    25. 25. KumbaKumba lives intownhouse typeapartments in a complex
    26. 26. EssahEssah lives in a secondfloor apartment.
    27. 27. Setting Four Kumba’s spontaneous drawings brought from home in the subsequent weeks.
    28. 28. Other Projects Painting background for nativities – 12/2009 Cutting snowflakes – 1/2011
    29. 29. Parallels to Children’s Work?Does their natural development mirror emergentliteracy?
    30. 30. Drawings of people by nurseryschool children http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html
    31. 31. Tadpole Figure By a pre- From a severely By a pre- school child mentally school child handicapped adult http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html
    32. 32. Sarah – 3.2 to 3.4 years people a cat, Tyrannosaurus rex, and a leopard http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html
    33. 33. Helen, 4.5 – 5.5 years http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/children%27s-drawings-human-figures.html
    34. 34. Abby, Age 4
    35. 35. Rachel, Age 7
    36. 36. Developmental ArtDevelopment in Children
    37. 37. Callaghan Phases of Development Callaghan, T.C. (2008) The origins and Development of Pictorial Symbol Functioning. In Children’s Understanding and Production of Pictures, Drawings, and Art: Theoretical and Empirical Approaches. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe. P 22
    38. 38. Donley, S.K. 1985/1987Adapted from teacher inservice training materials for earlychildhood, art education, and special education workshops.http://www.learningdesign.com/Portfolio/DrawDev/kiddrawing.html#anchor2470313
    39. 39. Rhoda Kellogg: GestaltsKellogg, R. (1969) Analyzing children’s art. Paolo Alto, CA: National Press Books. P 109
    40. 40. Kellog’s Schemeof the Evolutionof PictorialWorkCommonSequences Kellogg, R. (1969) Analyzing children’s art. Paolo Alto, CA: National Press Books. P 273
    41. 41. House-Tree-Person/Kinetic HTPMeasure aspects of person’s personality 3 years-adultCommon in art therapyQuestionable validity1948/1969
    42. 42. Josiah, Age 4
    43. 43. Noah, Age 6
    44. 44. Rachel, Age 8
    45. 45. Micah, Age 10
    46. 46. Annie K.
    47. 47. Frances
    48. 48. Kumba
    49. 49. Martha
    50. 50. Elizabeth
    51. 51. Essah
    52. 52. Value of Using Art "This adapted Kinetic-House-Tree-Person for adults with developmental disabilities holds promise for providing an arts- based assessment that assesses for growth and positive changes in the individual in addition to negative or downward changes. Verbal assessments are not always appropriate due to verbal limitations within the individual who has developmental disabilities, therefore, arts therapists have at their disposal alternatives for assessing for change in functioning. Because this assessment mirrored the notes of the on-site therapists, this assessment suggests it can measure change. It also suggests that arts based interventions do, in fact, facilitate well-being and positive changes in interaction and communication." p 45 Lister & Rosales In Snow and DAmico
    53. 53. Value of Using Art "...there is evidence of a relationship between thought and drawing that becomes visible through the study of meaning-making processes. Drawing supports the movement from simple spontaneous concepts to more complex concepts and plays an important role in promoting higher mental functions. " Brooks, Drawing to Learn in Making Meaning p. 9
    54. 54. Is It Cultural?
    55. 55. Alexander Alland, 1983  240 children’s drawings  Six cultures  Bali  Ponape  Taiwan  Japan  US  France  Definite cultural variants
    56. 56. Ponape Now Pohnpie, Micronesia Male, 4 years, 19 minutes Female, 5 years, 5 minutes First encounter with drawing Limited exposure to art Generally single color Human figures rare Nonconformity with Western norms Male, 5 years, 14 minutes
    57. 57. Bali Male, 3.3 years, 30 minutes Female, 4.6 years, 25 minutes Overall density Polychromatic No stories Highly artistic culture Male, 2.6 years, 18 minutes
    58. 58. Taiwan Female, 4.8 years, 10 minutes Female, 6.8 years Long heritage of art Filling, building, touching, details Picture making influenced by relationship between pictorial Male, 5.2 years, 24 minutes representation and writing
    59. 59. Japan Male, 5.6years, 27 minutes Female, 3.10 years, 14 minutes Modern aesthetic in culture Highly visual culture Colorful, often single subject Female, 4.11 years, 8 minutes
    60. 60. Alexander Alland, 1983 Conclusions: “…the two most important elements in drawing skill among young children are experience and exposure to art.” P 63 "On the basis of my data I believe that representation and symbolism are things children are consciously or unconsciously taught to do by adults and other children. This leads to the conclusion that the only safe definition of childrens drawing can be playing with form." p215
    61. 61. What we know about Liberia’s Art Dan, Mano, Kran , Kpelle tribal art Known for their carved masks Music and dance very important Kissi make baskets and weave on vertical looms Literacy rate: 25% http://www.mariomeneghini.com/destination%20Dan,%20Ma no,%20Krahn,%20Kpelle/index.htm
    62. 62. Relating this to Writing
    63. 63. Children Create Letters in Art"Most of the letters of the English alphabet, both capitals and lower-case forms, are made by young children as art Gestalts. In art, theletters are placed or arranged to complete a Pattern or animplied shape. In language, the letters are arranged in acertain order within words and are put into a certain left-right and top-bottom placement. As the child learns toread, he must perceive the differences between the estheticand the linguistic positioning of letters, and as he learns towrite, he must put this perception to use.Each child who has scribbled agreat deal will know many of theletter Gestalts when he entersschool, but he needs to learn thedifferences between their usesfor art and for language.Otherwise, he will have seriousdifficulties with language.” Kellogg, 1970 p 262
    64. 64. Charlie’s Story
    65. 65. Not seeing letters, but shapes
    66. 66. Elizabeth did the same thing
    67. 67. Learning to Read and Write Art “...human artistry is viewed first and foremost as an activity of the mind, an activity that involves the use of a transformation of various kinds of symbols and systems of symbols. Individuals who wish to participate meaningfully in artistic perception must learn to decode, to "read" the various symbolic vehicles in their culture; individuals who which to participate in artistic creation must learn how to manipulate, how to "write with" the various symbolic forms present in their culture, and, finally, individuals who wish to engage fully in the artistic realm must also gain mastery of certain central artistic concepts. Just as one cannot assume that individuals will – in the absence of support - learn to read and write in their natural languages, so, too, it seems reasonable to assume that individuals can benefit from assistance in learning to "read" and "write" in the various languages of the arts.” Howard Gardner, Art Education and Human Development, p 9
    68. 68. Working with Clay
    69. 69. Women at the tomb (Annie G.) Jesus and Mary Magdalene (Elizabeth) A man and a woman (Essah)
    70. 70. Women and a man (Martha)Women and the angel (Kumba)
    71. 71. Elizabeth’s mortars and bowl
    72. 72. Essah
    73. 73. On it Goes
    74. 74. Visual Literacy? Not yet.Christmas 2012Tell the story with the stickers.
    75. 75. Pictionary
    76. 76. So what? And now what?What have you seen here?Have you seen this in your classroom?Is drawing a precursor to writing?How can we use clay to teach symbolism?Where do we go from here?
    77. 77. Sources Alland, A. (1983). Playing with Form. New York: Columbia Universtiy Press Brooks, M. (2002). Drawing to learn. Unpublished PhD thesis. Alberta: University of Alberta, Canada Brooks, M. Drawing to Learn. In Narey, M. ed. (2009). Making Meaning: Constructing Multimodal Perspectives of Language, Literacy, and Learning through Arts-based Early Childhood Education. New York: Springer Camnitzer, L. (2009, Feb). Art and Literacy. e-flux. http://www.e-flux.com/journal/view/42 Camnitzer, L. (2009,Oct). Alphabetization, Part One: Protocal and Profieiency. http://www.e- flux.com/journal/view/78 Freeman, N. H. (1987) Childrens drawings of human figures - The Oxford Companion to Art, available, accessible, quite, real. Online: http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/childrens- drawings-human-figures.html Gardner, H. (1990). Art Education and Human Development. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust Hagood, M.H. (2000). The Use of Art in Counselling Child and Adult Survivors of Sexual Abuse. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishing Kellogg, R. (1969). Analyzing Childrens Art. Palo Alto, CA: National Press Books Lister, S, and Rosales, A. . The Kinetic-House-Tree-Person Adapted to Adults with Developmental Disabilities. In Snow, S. and DAmico, M. (2009). Assessment in the Creative Arts Therapies: Designing and Adapting Assessment Tools for Adults with Developmental Disabilities. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers Milbrath, C. & Trautner, H.M. eds. (2008). Childrens Understanding and Production of Pictures, Drawings & Art: Theoretical and Empirical Approaches. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe Vygotsky, L.G. (1970). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Edited by Cole, M., John-Steiner, V. Scribner, S. & Souberman, E. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
    78. 78. Adult Literacy Students Draw Jean Marrapodi jmarrapodi@applestar.org @jmarrapodi 401-440-61615

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