Gesell (1948) used "drawing to investigate the child mind. When he asked three year olds to copy geometric shapes - squares, circles, triangles, crosses, diamonds - they did rather poorly. Yet the normal child of this age spontaneously draws esthetic versions of these geometric forms except for the diamond. Apparently, the mental activity involved in copy work differs from that needed for spontaneous art.“ Kellogg, p 179
Basic ScribblesDiagrams and CombinesAggregatesSunsSun faces and figuresHumans with head-top markings and with arms attached to the headHumans without head-top markingsArmless humansHumans with varied torsosHumans with arms attached to the torsoRelatively complete human imagesKellogg, R. (1969). Analyzing Children’s Art. Palo Alto, CA: National Press Books p 109
Updated developmental art in the low literacy classroom
Developmental Art in the Low Literacy ClassroomJean Marrapodi email@example.com @jmarrapodi 401-440-6165
Context Adult Sunday School Class Liberian refugees Senior citizens, age unknown (not tracked in Liberia) Meet 1 hour/week for past 5 years
Preamble: Spring 2006 Lesson One: Palm Sunday Draw a picture to illustrate the story Could not do. Through a translator: “We can’t do that. We haven’t practiced like you have to be able to do that.”
Preamble Two Lesson Two: Easter Ok, let’s copy some drawings to tell the story. We can’t do that.
Preamble Three Let’s try to copy some symbols then. Could not complete unless dots were drawn to connect the lines. Circles were misshapen and barely recognizable.
No Print Awareness Elizabeth loves Jesus Switched cards: Jesus loves Elizabeth Said: Elizabeth loves Jesus.
Reading Art: Part OneIsabella Stewart Gardner Adam and EveMuseum, Boston C H A T T E R Ho-hum !
Setting One: October 2010 Pastor Appreciation Sunday Given a template with prompts: Pastor Berkley is ___________ Pastor Michele is ___________ I love my pastors! Learned what the prompts said. Asked to come up with a word to fill in. They either copied the word or had teacher spell it. Draw a picture of you and the pastors.
Setting Two (following week) Given blank paper and markers Draw a picture of you with your grandchildren Teacher wrote names of children
Frances * Granddaughter came over to “help” ** * *
Setting Three (following week) Discussion about houses in America vs Liberia Let’s draw pictures of your houses here and in Liberia. Given blank paper and markers Teacher wrote words as given prompts
Callaghan Phases of Development Callaghan, T.C. (2008) The origins and Development of Pictorial Symbol Functioning. In Children’s Understanding and Production of Pictures, Drawings, and Art: Theoretical and Empirical Approaches. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe. P 22
Donley, S.K. 1985/1987Adapted from teacher inservice training materials for earlychildhood, art education, and special education workshops.http://www.learningdesign.com/Portfolio/DrawDev/kiddrawing.html#anchor2470313
Rhoda Kellogg: GestaltsKellogg, R. (1969) Analyzing children’s art. Paolo Alto, CA: National Press Books. P 109
Kellog’s Schemeof the Evolutionof PictorialWorkCommonSequences Kellogg, R. (1969) Analyzing children’s art. Paolo Alto, CA: National Press Books. P 273
House-Tree-Person/Kinetic HTPMeasure aspects of person’s personality 3 years-adultCommon in art therapyQuestionable validity1948/1969
Value of Using Art "This adapted Kinetic-House-Tree-Person for adults with developmental disabilities holds promise for providing an arts- based assessment that assesses for growth and positive changes in the individual in addition to negative or downward changes. Verbal assessments are not always appropriate due to verbal limitations within the individual who has developmental disabilities, therefore, arts therapists have at their disposal alternatives for assessing for change in functioning. Because this assessment mirrored the notes of the on-site therapists, this assessment suggests it can measure change. It also suggests that arts based interventions do, in fact, facilitate well-being and positive changes in interaction and communication." p 45 Lister & Rosales In Snow and DAmico
Value of Using Art "...there is evidence of a relationship between thought and drawing that becomes visible through the study of meaning-making processes. Drawing supports the movement from simple spontaneous concepts to more complex concepts and plays an important role in promoting higher mental functions. " Brooks, Drawing to Learn in Making Meaning p. 9
Alexander Alland, 1983 240 children’s drawings Six cultures Bali Ponape Taiwan Japan US France Definite cultural variants
Ponape Now Pohnpie, Micronesia Male, 4 years, 19 minutes Female, 5 years, 5 minutes First encounter with drawing Limited exposure to art Generally single color Human figures rare Nonconformity with Western norms Male, 5 years, 14 minutes
Bali Male, 3.3 years, 30 minutes Female, 4.6 years, 25 minutes Overall density Polychromatic No stories Highly artistic culture Male, 2.6 years, 18 minutes
Taiwan Female, 4.8 years, 10 minutes Female, 6.8 years Long heritage of art Filling, building, touching, details Picture making influenced by relationship between pictorial Male, 5.2 years, 24 minutes representation and writing
Japan Male, 5.6years, 27 minutes Female, 3.10 years, 14 minutes Modern aesthetic in culture Highly visual culture Colorful, often single subject Female, 4.11 years, 8 minutes
Alexander Alland, 1983 Conclusions: “…the two most important elements in drawing skill among young children are experience and exposure to art.” P 63 "On the basis of my data I believe that representation and symbolism are things children are consciously or unconsciously taught to do by adults and other children. This leads to the conclusion that the only safe definition of childrens drawing can be playing with form." p215
What we know about Liberia’s Art Dan, Mano, Kran , Kpelle tribal art Known for their carved masks Music and dance very important Kissi make baskets and weave on vertical looms Literacy rate: 25% http://www.mariomeneghini.com/destination%20Dan,%20Ma no,%20Krahn,%20Kpelle/index.htm
Children Create Letters in Art"Most of the letters of the English alphabet, both capitals and lower-case forms, are made by young children as art Gestalts. In art, theletters are placed or arranged to complete a Pattern or animplied shape. In language, the letters are arranged in acertain order within words and are put into a certain left-right and top-bottom placement. As the child learns toread, he must perceive the differences between the estheticand the linguistic positioning of letters, and as he learns towrite, he must put this perception to use.Each child who has scribbled agreat deal will know many of theletter Gestalts when he entersschool, but he needs to learn thedifferences between their usesfor art and for language.Otherwise, he will have seriousdifficulties with language.” Kellogg, 1970 p 262
Learning to Read and Write Art “...human artistry is viewed first and foremost as an activity of the mind, an activity that involves the use of a transformation of various kinds of symbols and systems of symbols. Individuals who wish to participate meaningfully in artistic perception must learn to decode, to "read" the various symbolic vehicles in their culture; individuals who which to participate in artistic creation must learn how to manipulate, how to "write with" the various symbolic forms present in their culture, and, finally, individuals who wish to engage fully in the artistic realm must also gain mastery of certain central artistic concepts. Just as one cannot assume that individuals will – in the absence of support - learn to read and write in their natural languages, so, too, it seems reasonable to assume that individuals can benefit from assistance in learning to "read" and "write" in the various languages of the arts.” Howard Gardner, Art Education and Human Development, p 9
So what? And now what?What have you seen here?Have you seen this in your classroom?Is drawing a precursor to writing?How can we use clay to teach symbolism?Where do we go from here?
Sources Alland, A. (1983). Playing with Form. New York: Columbia Universtiy Press Brooks, M. (2002). Drawing to learn. Unpublished PhD thesis. Alberta: University of Alberta, Canada Brooks, M. Drawing to Learn. In Narey, M. ed. (2009). Making Meaning: Constructing Multimodal Perspectives of Language, Literacy, and Learning through Arts-based Early Childhood Education. New York: Springer Camnitzer, L. (2009, Feb). Art and Literacy. e-flux. http://www.e-flux.com/journal/view/42 Camnitzer, L. (2009,Oct). Alphabetization, Part One: Protocal and Profieiency. http://www.e- flux.com/journal/view/78 Freeman, N. H. (1987) Childrens drawings of human figures - The Oxford Companion to Art, available, accessible, quite, real. Online: http://psychology.jrank.org/pages/890/childrens- drawings-human-figures.html Gardner, H. (1990). Art Education and Human Development. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust Hagood, M.H. (2000). The Use of Art in Counselling Child and Adult Survivors of Sexual Abuse. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishing Kellogg, R. (1969). Analyzing Childrens Art. Palo Alto, CA: National Press Books Lister, S, and Rosales, A. . The Kinetic-House-Tree-Person Adapted to Adults with Developmental Disabilities. In Snow, S. and DAmico, M. (2009). Assessment in the Creative Arts Therapies: Designing and Adapting Assessment Tools for Adults with Developmental Disabilities. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers Milbrath, C. & Trautner, H.M. eds. (2008). Childrens Understanding and Production of Pictures, Drawings & Art: Theoretical and Empirical Approaches. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe Vygotsky, L.G. (1970). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Edited by Cole, M., John-Steiner, V. Scribner, S. & Souberman, E. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Adult Literacy Students Draw Jean Marrapodi firstname.lastname@example.org @jmarrapodi 401-440-61615