Modelo de compras de software


Published on

Modelo de compras de software e contratação de serviços do Governo Norte-Americano

James Mc Galliard
Membro da General Services Administration

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Modelo de compras de software

    1. 1. U.S. Government Software and Service Purchasing Methods Conference on Government Software and Services Purchasing Brasilia, Brazil November 9, 2000
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Software purchasing methods </li></ul><ul><li>Information Technology Service purchasing methods </li></ul><ul><li>Recent developments </li></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>U.S. information technology budget </li></ul><ul><li>GSA & FEDSIM </li></ul><ul><li>Leading considerations in U.S. Government IT purchasing </li></ul><ul><li>Laws and regulations for U.S. Government IT purchasing </li></ul><ul><li>Basic steps of IT purchasing </li></ul>
    4. 4. U.S. Government Information Technology Budget <ul><li>Approximately $40 billion annually </li></ul><ul><li>Software is about 5% of the total </li></ul><ul><li>Services are about 60% of the total </li></ul>
    5. 5. GSA & FEDSIM <ul><li>I represent... </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) - established in 1949 to provide common use goods and services including supplies, real estate, and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Technology Service (FTS) - provides computer and communications technology to other U.S. Government agencies on a voluntary, reimbursable basis </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Systems Integration and Management Service (FEDSIM) supports large IT technology projects - about $1 billion annually </li></ul><ul><li>Home is at </li></ul>
    6. 6. Leading Considerations <ul><li>Balance of agency requirements, technical environment, market conditions, and public policies </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Public policy considerations - small business, labor, environment, privacy, etc. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Laws and Regulations for U.S. Government Information Technology Purchasing <ul><li>Competition in Contracting Act </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act </li></ul><ul><li>Information Technology Management Reform Act </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Acquisition Reform Act </li></ul><ul><li>Small Business Act </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Acquisition Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Agency Acquisition Regulations </li></ul>
    8. 8. Basic Steps of Information Technology Purchasing <ul><li>Mission Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Market Research </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Solicitation </li></ul><ul><li>Proposals </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Award </li></ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul>
    9. 9. Software Purchasing Methods <ul><li>Standard Software Purchasing </li></ul><ul><li>Custom Software Purchasing </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrids </li></ul>
    10. 10. Standard Software Purchasing <ul><li>Known as “Commercial Off the Shelf” software or COTS </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Operating systems (Windows, UNIX); Compilers/Interpreters (COBOL, JAVA, Visual Basic); Office Automation (Word, Excel) </li></ul><ul><li>Often purchased from an umbrella contract, such as GSA Schedules </li></ul>
    11. 11. Standard Software Purchasing <ul><li>Usually purchased for a firm, fixed price </li></ul><ul><li>Initial purchase can be competitive (e.g., Oracle vs. DB2 vs. Access) </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-on purchases usually reflect conversion costs, which can be high </li></ul>
    12. 12. Custom Software Purchasing <ul><li>New system development </li></ul><ul><li>Often purchased from an umbrella contract </li></ul><ul><li>Usually purchased based on cost, such as hourly labor rates </li></ul><ul><li>Can be competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-on purchases may reflect incumbent’s expertise </li></ul>
    13. 13. Hybrids <ul><li>Popular for large, complex applications, such as Enterprise Resources Planning; Human Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase a license for a COTS product, such as Oracle ERP or PeopleSoft </li></ul><ul><li>Government systems often have unique requirements that are not easily changed </li></ul>
    14. 14. Hybrids <ul><li>Purchase services to customize/configure the COTS product </li></ul><ul><li>Customization can be very expensive </li></ul>
    15. 15. Information Technology Service Purchasing Methods <ul><li>Standard Services </li></ul><ul><li>Custom Services </li></ul>
    16. 16. Standard Service Purchasing <ul><li>Examples: hardware maintenance; communications lines; time sharing; seat management </li></ul><ul><li>Usually firm fixed price </li></ul><ul><li>Usually purchased from an existing contract </li></ul><ul><li>Often significant competition </li></ul>
    17. 17. Standard Service Purchasing <ul><li>Hardware maintenance - third party competition is available for some commodities </li></ul><ul><li>Communications - dramatic price reductions recently; competition for long distance </li></ul>
    18. 18. Standard Service Purchasing <ul><li>Time sharing - Small agency data centers are not cost effective. Small data centers are merging or being contracted out. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Example: Seat Management <ul><li>Desktop computing sold as a utility at a fixed price per “seat” </li></ul><ul><li>Asset management </li></ul><ul><li>Service level agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering momentum </li></ul>
    20. 20. Methods <ul><li>Industry-defined services are relatively easy to specify - e.g., analog phone line, T-1, ISDN, hardware maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Some services are harder to define - e.g., seat management </li></ul><ul><li>Firm fixed price services require precise specifications </li></ul>
    21. 21. Custom Service Purchasing <ul><li>Examples: requirements analysis, risk analysis, network operations, systems integration, training </li></ul><ul><li>Usually cost based contract (cost; cost plus fixed fee; time and materials; etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually purchased from an existing contract </li></ul>
    22. 22. Custom Service Purchasing <ul><li>Usually priced per labor hour - contracts have ceilings or fixed rates </li></ul><ul><li>Labor rates have been rising faster than contracts anticipated in recent years </li></ul>
    23. 23. Example: Systems Integration <ul><li>One contract for requirements analysis and system implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Exploits the contractor’s learning curve </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to manage </li></ul><ul><li>Problems include cost overruns; schedule overruns; requirements slip; changing technologies </li></ul>
    24. 24. Recent Developments <ul><li>Accelerating procurements </li></ul><ul><li>Internet impacts </li></ul>
    25. 25. Accelerating Procurements <ul><li>Challenge: increase efficiency while preserving competition </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-award contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Government-wide Acquisition Contracts (GWACs) </li></ul><ul><li>Oral proposals </li></ul><ul><li>Best value </li></ul>
    26. 26. Internet Impacts <ul><li>E-government </li></ul><ul><li>Web-based procurement transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse auctions </li></ul><ul><li>Security concerns </li></ul>
    27. 27. Summary <ul><li>Current U.S. Government software and service purchasing has less oversight; more agency discretion; and faster and easier methods than five to ten years ago </li></ul>
    28. 28. Summary <ul><li>U.S. Government purchases mirror the private sector - current interests include electronic commerce/electronic government; Internet applications; COTS software for applications; seat management; telework/remote computing; information security; and others </li></ul>
    29. 29. Summary <ul><li>U.S. Government purchasing also reflects external factors and public policy considerations </li></ul>
    30. 30. Web Sites <ul><li>There are many relevant web sites. The following are examples only. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Web Sites - Guidelines <ul><li>U.S. Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Federal Acquisition Regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Information Technology Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Web Sites - Guidelines <ul><li>Federal Information Processing Standards Publications </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples of IT Standards Organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Cost Estimation Tools <ul><li>A Software Development Cost Estimation Tool, COCOMOII </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FEDSIM Software Conversion Cost Estimation Tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email for a copy </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Web Sites - GWACs <ul><li>GSA Schedules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GSA Millennia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GSA ANSWER: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Web Sites - GWACs <ul><li>ITOP: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CIOSP: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Web Sites - E-Government <ul><li>Portal to U.S. Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GSA Advantage - Standard Software, Services, Commodities purchasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IT Solutions Shop - Custom Software & Services purchasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Web Sites - E-Government <ul><li>Commerce Business Daily - List of current solicitations & bid invitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buyers.Gov - Reverse Auctions & Volume Purchasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>