WH Chapter 7 Incas


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WH Chapter 7 Incas

  1. 1. CHAPTER 7 The Incas
  2. 2. EARLY PEOPLES OF PERU Western South America includes a wide variety of climates and terrains:  Narrow coastal plain that turns into a dry, lifeless desert with occasional river valleys  Snow-capped Andes Mountains  High plateau  Jungles inland 
  3. 3. MAP OF PERU
  4. 4. EARLY PEOPLES OF PERU Native American peoples developed many different styles of life across South America  Hunters/gatherers, farmers, fishermen  Farmers used irrigation methods to grow corn, beans, squash, and cotton  Potatoes were also grown and included over 700 different varieties  Domestication of the llama and alpaca 
  5. 5. CHAVIN PEOPLE Earliest culture in Peru  Around 850 BC, built a huge temple complex in the Andes  Stone carvings and pottery show that the Chavin people worshiped a ferocious-looking god, part jaguar and part human with grinning catlike features 
  8. 8. MOHICA PEOPLE Between 100-700 AD, the Mohica people forged an empire along the arid north coast of Peru  The Mohicas were skilled farmers who developed new methods of terracing, irrigation, and fertilization of the soil  Their leaders built roads and organized networks of relay runners to carry messages---ideas the Incas would later use 
  9. 9. MOHICA PEOPLE Remains of Mohica cities and temples dot the land  To build one temple, workers had to produce 130 MILLION sun-dried adobe bricks  The people perfected skills in textile production, goldwork, and woodcarving  They produced remarkable pots decorated with realistic scenes of daily life 
  10. 10. NAZCA PEOPLE In southern Peru, the Nazca people etched glyphs in the desert  Glyph---pictograph or other symbol carved into a surface  Nazca glyphs include straight lines that run for miles, as well as giant figures of birds, whales, and other creatures 
  11. 11. NAZCA GLYPHS
  12. 12. NAZCA GLYPH
  13. 13. NAZCA GLYPH
  14. 14. THE INCAN EMPIRE Pachacuti, a skilled warrior and leader, was the founder of the Incan empire  In 1438, he proclaimed himself Sapa Inca (emperor) and set out on a policy of conquest  He and later his son were able to extend Incan rule from Ecuador in the north to Chile in the South  He made Cuzco the capital of the Incan empire 
  15. 15. PACHACUTI
  17. 17. CUZCO, PERU
  18. 18. CUZCO, PERU
  20. 20. INCAN GOVERNMENT The Sapa Inca exercised absolute power over the empire  Claiming that he was divine, he was also the chief religious leader  His symbol was gold aka “sweat of the sun”  He lived in splendor, eating from golden plates and dressing in richly embroidered clothes  In fact, the Sapa Inca never wore the same clothes twice!!!  His queen, the Coya, carried out important religious duties and sometimes governed when the Sapa Inca was absent 
  21. 21. INCAN GOVERNMENT From Cuzco, the Incas ran an efficient government with a chain of command reaching into every village  Nobles ruled the provinces along with local chieftains whom the Incas had conquered  Below them, officials carried out the day-to-day business of collecting taxes and enforcing laws  Specially trained officials kept records on a quipu, a collection of knotted, colored strings  Modern scholars think that the quipus noted dates and events as well as statistics on population and crops 
  22. 22. QUIPUS
  23. 23. INCAN ROADS AND RUNNERS To unite their empire, the Incas imposed their own language, Quechua, and religion on the people  They also created one of the greatest road systems of history  It wound more than 12,000 miles through mountains and deserts  Hundreds of bridges spanned rivers and deep gorges  Steps were cut into steep slopes and tunnels dug though hillsides 
  24. 24. INCAN ROAD MAP
  25. 25. INCAN ROAD
  26. 26. INCAN BRIDGE
  28. 28. INCAN ROADS AND RUNNERS The roads allowed armies and news to move rapidly throughout the empire  At regular stations, runners waited to carry messages  Relays of runners could carry news of a revolt swiftly from a distant province to the capital  The Incas kept soldiers at outposts throughout the empire to quickly crush any rebellions  Ordinary people, though, were restricted from using the roads at all 
  29. 29. CUZCO All roads led through Cuzco  In the heart of the city stood the great Temple of the Sun, its interior walls lined with gold  Like Incan palaces and forts, the temple was made of enormous stone blocks, each polished and carved to fit exactly in place  The engineering was so precise that, although no mortar was used to hold the stones together, Incan buildings have survived severe earthquakes 
  30. 30. DAILY LIFE The Incas strictly regulated the lives of millions of people within their empire  People lived in close-knit communities, called ayllus  Leaders of each ayllu carried out government orders, assigning jobs to each family and organizing the community to work the land  Government officials arranged marriages to ensure that men and women were settled at a certain age 
  31. 31. FARMING       Farmers expanded the step terraces built by earlier peoples On steep hillsides, they carved out strips of land to be held in place by stone walls These terraces kept rains from washing away the soil and made farming possible in places where flat land was scarce Farmers had to spend part of each year working land for the emperor and the temples as well as for their own communities All the land belonged to the Inca, but cultivation and crops were allotted to specific groups of people The government took possession of each harvest, dividing it up among the people and storing part of it in case of famine
  32. 32. METALWORKING The Incas were the best metalworkers of the Americas  They learned to work and alloy (blend) copper, tin, bronze, silver, and gold  While they employed copper and bronze for useful objects, they used precious metals for statues of gods and goddesses, eating utensils for the aristocracy, and decorations 
  33. 33. MEDICAL ADVANCES The Incas developed some important medical practices, including surgery on the human skull  In such operations, they first cleaned the operating area and then made the patient unconscious with a drug---procedures much closer to the use of modern antiseptics and anesthesia than anything practiced in Europe at the time 
  34. 34. RELIGION The Incas were polytheistic, worshipping many gods linked to the forces of nature  People offered food, clothing, and drink to the guardian spirits of the home and village  Religion was tied to the routines of life  Each month had its own festival, from the great ripening and the dance of the young maize to the festival of the water  Festivals were celebrated with ceremonies, sports, and games  A powerful class of priests served the gods, celebrating their special festivals and tending to their needs 
  35. 35. RELIGION Chief among the gods was Inti, the sun god  His special attendants, the “Chosen Women,” were selected from each region of the empire  During years of training, they studied the mysteries of the religion, learned to prepare ritual food and drink, and made the elaborate wool garments worn by the Sapa Inca and Coya  At the end of their training, most of the Chosen Women continued to serve the sun god; others joined the Inca’s court or married nobles 
  36. 36. MACHU PICCHU Machu Picchu lies some 7,000 feet above sea level high in the Andes  The sturdy walls have withstood centuries of earthquakes  Incan workers cut and fitted the stones together without using mortar  Abandoned for some 300 years, the ruins of Machu Picchu were rediscovered in 1911 
  38. 38. MACHU PICCHU
  39. 39. MACHU PICCHU
  40. 40. MACHU PICCHU
  41. 41. MACHU PICCHU
  42. 42. MACHU PICCHU
  43. 43. END OF THE EMPIRE At its height, the Incan civilization was a center of learning and political power  Then, in 1525, the emperor Huayna Capac died suddenly of an unknown plague that swept across the land  He did not name a successor and soon civil war broke out between two of his sons  The fighting weakened the empire at a crucial time because soon the Spanish conquistadors would bring down the empire 