CHAPTER 5
Section 3 Notes
The Persian Wars







Herodotus---told the story of the Greek’s pride
By 500 B.C., Athens had emerged as the
wealthi...
Persian Empire
Herodotus
Darius
The Persian Wars





Darius sent a huge force to attack Athens
The Athenians and the Persians fought at the
Battle of ...
Battle of Marathon
Nike
Some of my favorite Nikes
The Persian Wars










In 480 B.C., Darius’ son Xerxes sent a huge
force to conquer Greece
Athens had persuaded S...
Xerxes
Thermopylae
Last Stand of the 300
Leonidas
The Persian Wars








After defeating the Spartans, the Persians
marched south and burned Athens, even though
the c...
Themistocles
The Persian Wars








Victory in the Persian Wars increased the
Greeks’ sense of their own uniqueness
Athens emerge...
Athens in the Age of Pericles






The years after the Persian Wars were a
golden age for Athens
Under the rule of Per...
Pericles
Athens in the Age of Pericles







Periclean Athens had a direct democracy---a
large number of citizens take direct ...
Athens in the Age of Pericles







Athens began to pay a stipend to men who
held public office---this enabled poor m...
Athens in the Age of Pericles




Athenian citizens could also vote to banish
public figures who they saw as a threat to...
Athens in the Age of Pericles






Thucydides, a historian who lived in the Age of
Pericles, recorded a speech given b...
Thucydides
Athens in the Age of Pericles





Athens prospered during the Age of Pericles
The best architects and sculptors were h...
Aspasia
The Peloponnesian War








Many Greeks outside of Athens resented
Athenian power and money
To counter the Delian Le...
Delian League
Peloponnesian League
The Peloponnesian War






Even though they were rich and had a
powerful navy, Athens faced a major
geographic disadva...
Peloponnesian War
The Peloponnesian War




Sparta eventually allied itself with Persia and
in 404 B.C. , with the help of the Persian nav...
Aftermath








The Peloponnesian War ended Athenian
domination of the Greek world
The Athenian economy revived and ...
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WH Chapter 5 Section 3 Notes

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5 Section 3 Notes
  2. 2. The Persian Wars     Herodotus---told the story of the Greek’s pride By 500 B.C., Athens had emerged as the wealthiest city-state Eventually the Persians conquered the Greek city-states of Ionia Athens sent ships to help the city-states when they rebelled and the Persian ruler Darius resented the help that Athens provided
  3. 3. Persian Empire
  4. 4. Herodotus
  5. 5. Darius
  6. 6. The Persian Wars    Darius sent a huge force to attack Athens The Athenians and the Persians fought at the Battle of Marathon in 490 B.C., a battle that the outnumbered Athenians won After winning the battle, the Greeks sent Pheidippides, their fastest runner, to Athens to deliver the message of victory (Nike). He collapsed and died after running the 26.2 miles. This is where we get the modern marathon from.
  7. 7. Battle of Marathon
  8. 8. Nike
  9. 9. Some of my favorite Nikes
  10. 10. The Persian Wars      In 480 B.C., Darius’ son Xerxes sent a huge force to conquer Greece Athens had persuaded Sparta and other citystates to join in the fight against Persia The Persians landed again in northern Greece A small Spartan force guarded the narrow mountain pass at Thermopylae Led by the great warrior-king Leonidas, the Spartans held out heroically against the enormous Persian force until they were all wiped out
  11. 11. Xerxes
  12. 12. Thermopylae
  13. 13. Last Stand of the 300
  14. 14. Leonidas
  15. 15. The Persian Wars     After defeating the Spartans, the Persians marched south and burned Athens, even though the city was empty The Greeks now put their faith in the fleet of ships that Themistocles had urged them to build The Athenians lured the Persian navy into the narrow strait of Salamis where the Athenian warships defeated the Persians The following year the Greeks defeated the Persians on land in Asia Minor and ended the Persian invasions
  16. 16. Themistocles
  17. 17. The Persian Wars     Victory in the Persian Wars increased the Greeks’ sense of their own uniqueness Athens emerged as the most powerful citystate in Greece It organized the Delian League, an alliance with other Greek city-states Athens angered other members by moving the treasury and using its money to rebuild the city of Athens
  18. 18. Athens in the Age of Pericles    The years after the Persian Wars were a golden age for Athens Under the rule of Pericles, the economy thrived and government became more democratic The period from 460 B.C.-429 B.C. is called the Age of Pericles
  19. 19. Pericles
  20. 20. Athens in the Age of Pericles     Periclean Athens had a direct democracy---a large number of citizens take direct part in the day-to-day affairs of government Today we use a representative democracy At least 6,000 members had to be present in order to decide important issues Pericles believed that all male citizens, regardless of wealth or social class should participate in government
  21. 21. Athens in the Age of Pericles     Athens began to pay a stipend to men who held public office---this enabled poor men to serve in government Athenians also served on juries Athenian juries included hundreds or even thousands of jurors---far different from our system today Male citizens over 30 years of age were chosen by lot to serve on the jury for a year--jurors also received a stipend
  22. 22. Athens in the Age of Pericles   Athenian citizens could also vote to banish public figures who they saw as a threat to their democracy (ostracism) To ostracize someone, a citizen wrote that person’s name on a piece of pottery. Depending on the number of votes cast, an ostracized individual would have to live outside the city, usually for a period of 10 years.
  23. 23. Athens in the Age of Pericles    Thucydides, a historian who lived in the Age of Pericles, recorded a speech given by Pericles at the funeral of Athenians slain in battle---the “Funeral Oration” Pericles said that: power in Athenian government rested not in the hands of a minority but of the whole people and stressed the rights and duties of citizenship Today the “Funeral Oration” is considered one of the earliest and greatest expressions of democratic ideals
  24. 24. Thucydides
  25. 25. Athens in the Age of Pericles    Athens prospered during the Age of Pericles The best architects and sculptors were hired to rebuild the Acropolis and other building projects were undertaken Pericles and Aspasia helped turn Athens into the cultural center of Greece (more on this in Section 4)
  26. 26. Aspasia
  27. 27. The Peloponnesian War     Many Greeks outside of Athens resented Athenian power and money To counter the Delian League of Athens, Sparta and other enemies of Athens formed the Peloponnesian League Sparta encouraged oligarchy, Athens supported democracy In 431 B.C., war broke out between Athens and Sparta---it would engulf all of Greece and last 27 years
  28. 28. Delian League
  29. 29. Peloponnesian League
  30. 30. The Peloponnesian War    Even though they were rich and had a powerful navy, Athens faced a major geographic disadvantage---Sparta was located inland When Sparta attacked Athens Pericles allowed people from the surrounding countryside to move within the city walls---this lead to overcrowding and the spread of a plague that killed 1/3 of the population including Pericles The war drug on and atrocities were carried out by both sides
  31. 31. Peloponnesian War
  32. 32. The Peloponnesian War   Sparta eventually allied itself with Persia and in 404 B.C. , with the help of the Persian navy, Sparta captured Athens (but didn’t destroy the city) This may have been due to Athens’ role in the Persian Wars
  33. 33. Aftermath     The Peloponnesian War ended Athenian domination of the Greek world The Athenian economy revived and Athens remained the cultural center of Greece but its spirit and vitality declined Democratic government suffered and corruption and self-interests replaced service to the city-state Fighting tore apart the Greek world---Sparta was eventually defeated by Thebes and eventually Greece would be taken over by an ambitious ruler from Macedonia (more on this in Section 5)

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